Review on Preparation of Medium- and Low-carbon Ferrochrome Alloys

  • Ting Hu
  • Hua Liu
  • Bingguo Liu
  • Linqing DaiEmail author
  • Libo Zhang
  • Shenghui Guo
Conference paper
Part of the The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series book series (MMMS)


As one of the important strategic materials, chromium has been widely used in metallurgical, refractory, and chemical industry. Ferrochrome is an important additive in the production of alloy steel. According to the carbon content, it is classified as high-carbon ferrochrome (carbon 4–8%), medium-carbon ferrochrome (0.5–4%), low-carbon ferrochrome (0.15–0.50%), micro-carbon ferrochrome (carbon 0.06%), and ultra-micro-carbon ferrochrome (less than 0.03%). But the most widely used one in metallurgical is the first three. This article mainly summarizes the current development of domestic and international medium-low-carbon ferrochrome and summarizes the preparation methods and the influence factors in the smelting process including reduction temperature, reduction time, the reduction agent, and alkalinity.


Chromite Smelting method Medium- and low-carbon ferrochrome Influence factors 



This research was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.51504114) and Kunming University of Science and Technology Foundation for analysis and testing (No.2018M20172202034). This support is gratefully acknowledged. The authors are grateful to the reviewers for the discerning comments on this paper.


  1. 1.
    Dai W, Li S (1999) Iron alloy metallurgical engineering, vol 92. Metallurgical Industry Press, Beijing, pp 121–122Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    X Wei (1992) The present situation of chromium industry at home and abroad. Yunnan Metall 2(1–5):19Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chakraborty D, Ranganathan S, Sinha SN (2005) Investigations on the carbothermic reduction of chromite ores. Metall Mater Trans B 36(4):437–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yu H, Wang H, Chu S, et al (2014) Introduction of CO2 branch storage and production of oxygen blowing method for low carbon ferrochrome role. In: The iron alloy symposium, 2014Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Weber P, Eric RH (2006) The reduction of chromite in the presence of silica flux. Miner Eng 19(3):318–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wu K (2015) Smelting low-carbon ferrochromium by microwave reduction of silicon. Kunming University of Science and TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jia Z (1989) The technology of pretreatment of chromite. Iron alloy 3:39–40Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shi F, Zhu K, Qian Y (2000) The new progress of chromite. China Chromium Iron Ore Mining Ind 15 (zk): 4–10Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fang S (1998) The real situation and party gram of foreign chromite mine. Geol prospect 34(2):16Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liu J (2005) Beneficiation of low-grade chromite. Sci Technol Jiuquan Iron steel 2:4–9Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chen X, Xie Q (2006) Present situation and the prospect of China Chrome iron ore. Ind Technol 35(5):38Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hu D (2004) Analysis of the supply strategy of chromium iron ore resources in China. Economic Manag Geol Technol 26(2):22–25Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yan J, Chen J, Hu L (2007) Chromium metallurgy. Metallurgical Industry Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tang X, Li X, Bo S (2002) Methods of producing low carbon ferrochrome. Iron Alloy 33(5):7–9Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Xiang T, Zuo B (2007) The electrosilicothermic process of producing low carbon ferrochrome and practice. Iron alloy 38(6):6–11Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wen X, Co J (2015) Discussion on medium-low carbon ferromang anese raw material selection in electrosilicothermic process production. Ferro-AlloysGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Guo J (2012) Study on low carbon ferrochrome in the production of argon-oxygen refining. Iron alloy 43(5):1–6Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shanghai iron alloy, Beijing Iron and Steel Institute. Low carbon ferrochrome smelting converter blowingGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hu L (1982) Production of low carbon ferrochrome prolongs the life of converter oxygen blowing method for the practice of. Iron alloy 2:16–21Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Narita K, Makino T, Matsumoto H et al (1983) Dephosphorization and desulfurization of hot metal by lime based flux injection-oxygen top blowing method(progress in pre-treatment of hot metals). Tetsu- to- Hagane 69(15):1825–1831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Masuda S, Taga M, Nakajima H et al (2009) Development of oxygen top blowing and argon bottom blowing method in refining of stainless steel. Tetsu- to- Hagane 72:1301–1308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yu H, Sun P (2013) Oxygen enriched bottom blowing bath smelting temperature control method based on variable universe fuzzy-PID. In: International Conference on Intelligent Networks and Intelligent Systems. IEEE, 2013, pp 127–130Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Li Q (1982) Production of medium and low carbon ferrochrome by combined blowing and blowing process of oxygen converter. Iron alloy 3:18–19Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ding YL, Warner NA (1997) Kinetics and mechanism of reduction of carbon-chromite composite pellets. Ironmak Steelmak 24:224–229Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Walkiewicz JW, Kazonich G, McGill SL (1988) Microwave heating characteristics of selected minerals and compounds. Miner Metall Process 5(1):39–42Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kingman SW, Rowson NA (2000) The effect of microwave radiation on the magnetic properties of minerals. J Microw Power Electromagn Energy A Publ Int Microw Power Inst 35(3):144–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kingman SW, Vorster W, Rowson NA (2000) The influence of mineralogy on microwave-assisted grinding. Miner Eng 13(3):313–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Amankwah RK, Khan AU, Pickles CA et al (2005) Improved grindability and gold liberation by microwave pretreatment of a free-milling gold ore. Miner Process Extr Metall Imm Trans 114(1):30–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Amankwah RK, Pickles CA, Yen WT (2005) Gold recovery by microwave augmented ashing of waste activated carbon. Miner Eng 18(5):517–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chen J, Li N, Wang S et al (2007) Temperature rising characteristics of chromite ore fines in the microwave field. J Proc Chinese Soc Sci Eng 29(9):000880–906Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wu K, Zhu H, Peng J et al (2014) Analysis of the microscopic structure of silicon chromite powder by microwave heating reduction. J Electron Microsc 6:526–530Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kui-lin Wu, Li L, Hong-bo Zhu et al (2015) Study on the process of microwave reduction of chromite powder containing Si. Powder Metall Ind 25(5):22–25Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Liu H (2018) Study on thermal reduction process of chromite silicon in microwave field. Kunming University of Science and TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Xu R, Ni R, Zhang S et al (1995) Pelletization of carbon-containing chromite and catalytic reduction of. Sintering and pelletizing, 1995(2)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zambrano B, Pillihuaman A (1969) Study of reduction in the self-reducing pellet of chromites. Revue Danthropologie Des Connaissances 5(3):473–491Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wang H, Dong Y, Wang S (2000) The thermodynamic analysis on smelting medium carbon and low carbon ferrochrome with converter practice. Ferro-AlloysGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Jianchen Li (2017) Study on the pre-reduction characteristics of chromite pellets. Iron Alloy 48(2):19–22Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zhou X, Hao X, Ma Q (2017) Effects of compound chemical activators on the hydration of low-carbon ferrochrome slag-based composite cement. J Environ Manage 191:58–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fu Y-Y (2013) AOD furnace smelting low carbon ferrochrome slag basicity optimization and prediction technology [D]. Changchun University of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ren Z, Zhou S, Yang Z et al (2007) Increasing the utilization of EAF in the production of Cr micro carbon ferrochrome. Mater Rev 21 (z2)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Qing Zhao, Chengjun Liu, Maofa Jiang et al (2013) Influence factors of chromite solid carbon thermal reduction process. Sci Technol Herald 31(5):40–43Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Guo W (1979) The melting of chrome ore in smelting low carbon ferrochrome. Iron Alloy 1979(4):24–30Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mou Q, Li X (2004) Application and research progress of microwave heating technology. Physics 33(6):438–442Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Waiquan Cai, Huiquan Li, Yi Zhang (2005) The application of microwave technology in metallurgical. J Process Eng 5(2):228–232Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Nengsheng Liu, Jin-hui Peng, Li-bo Zhang et al (2009) Advances in the application of microwave technology in metallurgy of rare and precious metals. Noble Metals 30(4):48–51Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lin Jin, Su Jie, Peng Jinhui, et al. (2016) Microwave technology in metallurgical smelting technology application status and prospects of. Vac Electr Technol (6):36–42Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Al-Buraik KA (2016) Utilization of microwave technology in enhanced oil recovery process for deep and shallow applications: US 20140027109 A1 [P]Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Company S A O. (2016) Utilization of microwave technology in enhanced oil recovery process for deep and shallow applicationsGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Zhou Y, Peng KY, Wang SJ (2006) Characteristics of temperature Increasing of metallurgical Zinc-bearing dust and sludge in the microwave field. Research on Iron & SteelGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Nowak D, Granat K, Opyd B (2014) Measurement of electrical properties as effectiveness appraisal of microwave absorption by moulding and core sands subject to microwave utilization. Arch Metall Mater 59(2):713–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ting Hu
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Hua Liu
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Bingguo Liu
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Linqing Dai
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  • Libo Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Shenghui Guo
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Complex Nonferrous Metal Resources Clean UtilizationKunming University of Science and TechnologyKunmingChina
  2. 2.Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy EngineeringKunming University of Science and TechnologyKunmingChina
  3. 3.Key Laboratory of Unconventional MetallurgyMinistry of EducationKunmingChina
  4. 4.National Local Joint Laboratory of Engineering Application of Microwave Energy and Equipment TechnologyKunmingChina

Personalised recommendations