Investigation on Clogging of Submerged Entry Nozzles for GCr15 Bearing Steels

  • Gong Cheng
  • Lifeng ZhangEmail author
  • Wenbo Wang
  • Qiangqiang Wang
  • Piotr Roman Scheller
Conference paper
Part of the The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series book series (MMMS)


Clogging of submerged entry nozzles for GCr15 bearing steels has been investigated by industrial experiments coupled with mathematical simulations. It was found that clogs on the submerged entry nozzle with four ports were mainly CaO-MgO-Al2O3 inclusions with the size of 2–6 μm, which cannot be avoided by removal of inclusions from the liquid steel. Cathodoluminescence microscopy was also applied for the characterisation of submerged entry nozzle clogging. Mathematical simulations were carried out to predict the main clogging location at the submerged entry nozzle with different types. The results showed that the percentage of inclusions entrapped on the cylindrical submerged entry nozzle and four-port one was 39.7 and 46.5%, respectively. It indicated that the cylindrical submerged entry nozzle helped reduce the probability of submerged entry nozzle clogging and was beneficial for the improvement of the fatigue property of bearing steels.


Inclusion Clogging Mathematical simulation 



The authors are grateful for support from the National Science Foundation China (Grant No. U1860206), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant No. FRF-TP-15-001C2), Beijing Key Laboratory of Green Recycling and Extraction of Metals (GREM) and the High-quality Steel Consortium (HQSC) at the School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering at University of Science and Technology Beijing (USTB), China.


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gong Cheng
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lifeng Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Wenbo Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Qiangqiang Wang
    • 3
  • Piotr Roman Scheller
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Metallurgical and Ecological EngineeringUniversity of Science and Technology Beijing (USTB)BeijingChina
  2. 2.Beijing Key Laboratory of Green Recycling and Extraction of MetalUniversity of Science &Technology BeijingBeijingChina
  3. 3.College of Materials Science and EngineeringChongqing UniversityChongqingChina

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