The Science of Qualitative Economics

  • Woodrow W. Clark II
  • Michael Fast


Little has changed in economics over the last 50 years and even longer since the mid-nineteenth century with Adam Smith. A brief summary of economics over the decades starts before the twentieth century with the field being in the domain of philosophy. Aside from the political extremes that grew before and after WWI, global economics were dominated by few individuals from either the political right or left. Then in the 1930s, scholars and politicians began to focus more and more on numbers, since the global depreciation meant that countries needed to invest in themselves. Numbers had to be created both to account for the investments and to manage them.


  1. Allaire Y, Firsirotu ME. Theories of organizational culture. Organ Stud, Issue 1. 1984;5(3):193–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arbnor I, Bjerke B. Företagsekonomisk metodlära. Lund: Studentlitteratur; 1981.Google Scholar
  3. Bartunek JM. Changing interpretive schemes and organizational restructuring: the example of a religious order. Adm Sci Q. 1984;29:355–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bate P. The impact of organizational culture on approaches to organizational problem-solving. Organ Stud. 1984;5(1):43–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Benson JK. Organizations: a dialectical view. Adm Sci Q. 1977a;22:1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Benson JK. Innovation and crises in organizational analysis. In: Benson JK, editor. Organizational analysis – critique and innovation. London: SAGE; 1977b.Google Scholar
  7. Berger PL, Luckmann T. The social construction of reality – a treatise in the sociology of knowledge. New York: Doubleday & Company; 1966.Google Scholar
  8. Blumer H. Symbolic interaction – perspective and method. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1969; 1986.Google Scholar
  9. Brown RH. Bureaucracy as praxis: towards a political phenomenology of formal organizations. Adm Sci Q. 1978;23(3):365–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chomsky N. Syntactic structures. The Hague: Mouton & Co.; 1957.Google Scholar
  11. Clark WW II, Bonato D. Circular economy and raw material strategy: a critical challenge for Europe and the rest of the World. HuffPost. 2015;Google Scholar
  12. Clark WW II, Paolucci E. An international model for technology commercialization. J Technol Transfer. 1997b. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  13. Clark WW Jr, Sørensen OJ. Toward a theory of entrepreneurship. Paper presented at the 39th World Congress of Small Business, Strasbourg. Aalborg: Aalborg University Press; 1994a.Google Scholar
  14. Clark WW Jr, Sørensen OJ. Linguistics in constructing a theory of business/economics: some empirical applications. Paper in Preparation. Aalborg: Aalborg University; 1994b.Google Scholar
  15. Clark WW Jr with Tao W, Jensen D. Capitalization of environmental technologies in companies: economic schemes in a business perspective. Paper and seminar coordinator, Greening of industry international conference, Santa Barbara, 1997.Google Scholar
  16. Clark WW Jr, Bline D, Demirag I. Financial markets, corporate governance and management of research and development: reflections on US managers’ perceptions. In: Demirag I, editor. Comparative capital systems. London: Pinter; 1998b.Google Scholar
  17. Diamond MA. Psychoanalytical phenomenology and organizational analysis. Adm Sci Q. 1990.Google Scholar
  18. Garfinkel H. Studies in ethnomethodology. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall; 1967.Google Scholar
  19. Giorgi A. Phenomenology and experimental psychology. In: Giorgi A, Fischer C, Von Echartsberg R, Murray E, editors. Duquesne studies in phenomenological psychology, vol. II. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press; 1971.Google Scholar
  20. Goffman E. The presentation of self in everyday life. New York: Doubleday; 1959.Google Scholar
  21. Grabher G, editor. The embedded firm: on the socioeconomics of industrial networks. London: Routledge; 1993.Google Scholar
  22. Graedel TE, Allenby BR. Industrial ecology. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall; 1995.Google Scholar
  23. Gullestrup H. Kultur, Kulturanalyse og Kulturetik – eller hvad adskiller og forener os? København: Akademisk Forlag; 1992.Google Scholar
  24. Hagedoorn J, Schakenraad J. Inter-firm partnerships and co-operative strategies in core technologies. In: Freeman C, Soete L, editors. New explorations in the economics of technical change. London: Frances Printer; 1990.Google Scholar
  25. Hagedoorn J, Schakenraad J. Leading companies and networks of strategic alliances in information technology. Res Policy. 1992;21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Håkansson H. Lecture: Network theory. Aalborg: Aalborg University Center; 1994.Google Scholar
  27. Håkansson H, Johanson J. The network as a governance structure: interfirm cooperation beyond markets and hierarchies. In: Grabher G, editor. The embedded firm: on the socioeconomics of industrial networks. London: Routledge; 1993. p. 35–51.Google Scholar
  28. Håkansson H, Snehota I. Developing relationships in business networks. Uppsala: University of Uppsala; 1994.Google Scholar
  29. Hedberg BLT. How organizations learn and unlearn. In: Nystrom PC, Starbuck WH, editors. Handbook of organizational design, vol. 1: Adapting organization to their environments. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1981.Google Scholar
  30. Heilbroner R. The making of economic society: revised for the 1990s. London: Prentice-Hall International; 1989.Google Scholar
  31. Hennestad BW. Organizations: frameworks or frame work? Scand J Manag Stud. 1986.Google Scholar
  32. Hirschman EC, Holbrook MB. Postmodern consumer research: the study of consumption as text. New York: SAGE; 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hummel RP. Applied phenomenology and organization. Adm Sci Q. 1990;14(1):9–17.Google Scholar
  34. Imershein AW. Organizational change as a paradigm shift. In: Benson JK, editor. Organizational analysis – critique and innovation. London: SAGE; 1977.Google Scholar
  35. Jehenson R. A phenomenological approach to the study of the formal organization. In: Psathas G, editor. Phenomenological sociology – issues and applications. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1978.Google Scholar
  36. Lundvall B-A. Explaining interfirm cooperation and innovation: limits of the transaction- cost approach. In: Grabher G, editor. The embedded firm: on the socioeconomics of industrial networks. London: Routledge; 1993. p. 52–64.Google Scholar
  37. Mangham I. Interactions and interventions in organizations. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1978.Google Scholar
  38. McNeill D, Freiberger P. Fuzzy Logic: the discovery of a revolutionary computer technology-- and how it is changing our world. New York: Simon & Schuster; 1993.Google Scholar
  39. Mead GH. Mind, self, & society – from the standpoint of a social behaviorist. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 1962 (1934).Google Scholar
  40. Meyerson D, Martin J. Cultural change: an integration of three different views. J Manag Stud. 1987;24(6):623–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Morgan G, editor. Beyond method – strategies for Social Research. Beverly Hills: SAGE; 1983.Google Scholar
  42. Morgan G, Ramirez R. Action learning: a holographic metaphor for guiding social change. Hum Relat. 1984;37(1):1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mowery DC, Oxley JE. Inward technology transfer and competitiveness: the role of national innovation systems. Camb J Econ. 1995;19(1):67–93.Google Scholar
  44. Mowery DC, Oxley JE, Silverman BS. Technological overlap and interfirm cooperation: implications for the resource-based view of the firm. Res Policy. 1997;27:507–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Popova J, Sørensen OJ. Marketing as social construction: alternative views on the interface between the enterprise and the environment. Unpublished, Aalborg: Aalborg University. Department of Development & Planning, International Business/Economics; 1996.Google Scholar
  46. Porter ME. Competitive strategy: techniques for analyzing industries and competitors. New York: Free Press; 1980.Google Scholar
  47. Porter ME. Competitive advantage. New York: Free Press; 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Reinert E. Symptoms and causes of poverty: underdevelopment in a Schumpeterian system. Forum Dev Stud. 1994;21(1–2):73–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Reinert E. Competitiveness and its predecessors – a 500 year cross-national perspective. Struct Chang Econ Dyn. 1995;6:23–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Reinert E. Economics: ‘the dismal science’ or ‘the never-ending frontier of knowledge’?: On technology, energy, and economic welfare. Nor Oil Rev. 1996;(7):18–31.Google Scholar
  51. Reinert E. The role of the state in economic growth. Working paper #1997.5, University of Oslo, Centre for Development and the Environment; 1997, p. 1–58.Google Scholar
  52. Reinert E. Raw materials in the history of economic policy. In: Cook G, editor. The economics and politics of international trade. London/New York: Routledge; 1998. p. 275–300.Google Scholar
  53. Reinert E, Daastol AM. Exploring the genesis of economic innovations: the religious gestalt-switch and the duty to invent as preconditions for economic growth. Eur J Law Econ. 1997;4(3/4):1–58.Google Scholar
  54. Rose AM. A systematic summery of symbolic interaction theory. In: Rose A, editor. Human behavior and social processes – an interactionist approach. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul; 1962.Google Scholar
  55. Schumpeter J. The theory of economic development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; 1934.Google Scholar
  56. Schumpeter J. Capitalism, socialism and democracy. New York: Harper & Brothers; 1942.Google Scholar
  57. Schutz A. The phenomenology of the social world. London: Heinemann Educational Books; 1972.Google Scholar
  58. Schutz A. Hverdagslivets sociologi. København: Hans Reitzel; 1973b.Google Scholar
  59. Schutz A. Phenomenology and the social sciences. In: Luckmann T, editor. Phenomenology and sociology. London: Penguin; 1978b.Google Scholar
  60. Schutz A. Life forms and meaning structure. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul; 1982.Google Scholar
  61. Schutz A. Collected papers I: the problem of social reality. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1990a.Google Scholar
  62. Silverman D. The theory of organisations. London: Heinemann; 1983.Google Scholar
  63. Sims D, Fineman S, Gabriel Y. Organizing “organisations”. London: SAGE; 1993.Google Scholar
  64. Singelmann P. Exchange as symbolic interaction: convergences between two theoretical perspectives. Am Sociol Rev. 1972;37(4):414–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Suchman L. Plans and situated actions: the problem of human/machine communication. London: Cambridge University Press; 1987.Google Scholar
  66. Suchman L. Working relations of technology production and use. In: Computer supported cooperative work, vol. 2. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publ; 1994.Google Scholar
  67. Teece DJ, Bercovitz JEL, De Figueiredo JM. Firm capabilities and managerial decision-making: a theory of innovation biases. Unpublished, Berkeley: Haas School of Business, University of California; 1994a.Google Scholar
  68. Teece DJ, Pisano G, Shuen A. Dynamic capabilities and strategic management. Center for Research in Management, working paper. Berkeley: University of California; 1994b.Google Scholar
  69. The Economist: Examining the mystery; 4 Jan 1992, p. 17.Google Scholar
  70. The Economist: The puzzling failure of economics; 23 Aug 1997b, p. 11.Google Scholar
  71. The Economist: The visible hand; 20 Sept 1997c, p. 17.Google Scholar
  72. Weber M. The methodology of the social sciences. New York: The Free Press; 1948.Google Scholar
  73. Weber M. Social and economic organization. New York: The Free Press; 1964.Google Scholar
  74. Weick KE. Enactment processes in organizations. In: Staw B, Salancik GR, editors. New directions in organizational behavior. Chicago: St. Clair Press; 1977.Google Scholar
  75. Weick KE. Cognitive processes in organizations. In: Research in organizational behavior, vol. 1. Greenwich: JAI Press; 1979b.Google Scholar
  76. Weick KE. That’s moving – theories that matter. J Manag Inq. 1999;8:134–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. White JD. Phenomenology and organizational development. Adm Sci Q. 1990;28:331–496.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Woodrow W. Clark II
    • 1
  • Michael Fast
    • 2
  1. 1.Pepperdine Graziadio Business School, Los Angeles and MalibuCaliforniaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Business and ManagementAalborg UniversityAalborgDenmark

Personalised recommendations