Self-defense of the Plants

  • Camilo CaraveoEmail author
  • Fevrier Valdez
  • Oscar Castillo
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology book series (BRIEFSAPPLSCIENCES)


Defense mechanisms (or coping strategies) are automatic natural processes that protect individuals against external or internal threats in general.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Camilo Caraveo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Fevrier Valdez
    • 1
  • Oscar Castillo
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Graduate StudiesTijuana Institute of TechnologyTijuanaMexico

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