• Guanrong ChenEmail author
  • Yang Lou
Part of the Emergence, Complexity and Computation book series (ECC, volume 34)


Language is a unique hallmark of human beings among all species in nature, which is developed by creation, acquisition, and maintenance. Humans use language to communicate in their society. With language, humans are able to exchange information and to express ideas, which in many ways have totally changed our lives and the social world [1].


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electronic EngineeringCity University of Hong KongHong KongChina
  2. 2.Centre for Chaos and Complex NetworksCity University of Hong KongHong KongChina

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