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Polarimetric Characteristics of Deep Convective Storms

  • Alexander V. Ryzhkov
  • Dusan S. Zrnic
Chapter
Part of the Springer Atmospheric Sciences book series (SPRINGERATMO)

Abstract

Overview of polarimetric measurements in deep convective storms is presented in this chapter. General characteristics of the spatial distributions of polarimetric radar variables in mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), hailstorms, and supercell tornadic storms are examined. Spatial pattern of the polarimetric variables in the MCSs is consistent with the accepted conceptual model. Combinations of polarimetric variables that correspond uniquely to locations within storms where specific scatterer types reside are identified and named “polarimetric signatures.” Prominent among these is the column of differential reflectivity indicative of convective updraft and preferred location for hail formation. The bottom of the column of specific differential phase is identified as location of precipitation-laden downdraft. Other important signatures associated with tornadic storms and discussed in this chapter are tornado debris signature (TDS), ZDR arc, and midlevel “rings” of enhanced ZDR and depressed ρhv. Examples of polarimetric variables in hailstorms are illustrated and related to the kinematic and microphysical features within these storms. Observations of large hail are presented, and comparisons between measurements at C and S band are made. Examples of tornado debris signatures observed with S-, C-, and X-band radars are also included. Modeling of the polarimetric characteristics of these deep convective storms is the subject of the last section, and examples from the literature are used to illustrate the inferred polarimetric signatures and compare these with observations.

Keywords

Polarimetric observations Deep convective storms Mesoscale convective systems Differential reflectivity column Column of differential phase Tornado debris signature ZDR arc Hail storm Modeling polarimetric characteristics 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander V. Ryzhkov
    • 1
  • Dusan S. Zrnic
    • 2
  1. 1.Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological StudiesThe University of OklahomaNormanUSA
  2. 2.National Severe Storms Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric AdministrationNormanUSA

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