Scattering by Ensemble of Hydrometeors: Polarimetric Perspective

  • Alexander V. Ryzhkov
  • Dusan S. Zrnic
Part of the Springer Atmospheric Sciences book series (SPRINGERATMO)


Scattering by an ensemble of particles is presented and the weighting in range imposed by the pulse shape and receiver filter is quantified. It is shown that the powers and correlations of the polarimetric signals are the fundamental measurands and the combination of these produces the polarimetric variables useful for interpretation of radar returns. The polarimetric radar equation is derived and the basic polarimetric variables measured in various modes of radar operation (with simultaneous or alternate transmission/reception) are defined. The effects of particles orientation are discussed in detail and analytical formulas for the angular moments which are part of closed-form solutions for various scattering quantities are presented.


Ensembles of particles Range weighting function Powers Correlations Polarimetric variables Particle orientation Angular moments 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander V. Ryzhkov
    • 1
  • Dusan S. Zrnic
    • 2
  1. 1.Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological StudiesThe University of OklahomaNormanUSA
  2. 2.National Severe Storms Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric AdministrationNormanUSA

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