Infection Control in Extrapulmonary TB

  • Lul Raka
  • Gjyle Mulliqi-Osmani


Infection control became a cornerstone for prevention and control of tuberculosis (TB). Transmission of M. tuberculosis occurs from one person to another through the airborne route, when an infected person speaks, coughs or sneezes. Transmission of TB is affected by the infectiousness of patient, environmental conditions and timing of exposure. TB infection prevention and control strategies are structured in three levels: administrative, environmental and personal respiratory protection.

In majority of extrapulmonary sites, TB is usually not contagious. However, sometimes irrigation of tuberculous lesions can produce infectious droplet nuclei resulting in transmission of M. tuberculosis. Persons with extrapulmonary TB disease may have concurrent unsuspected pulmonary or laryngeal TB disease. The clinical picture of extrapulmonary TB is atypical, and therefore it is very difficult to obtain correct microbiological samples for the confirmation of diagnosis. The chapter describes the most common extrapulmonary sites and corresponding infection control measures.


Extrapulmonary tuberculosis Infection control Transmission Administrative measures Environmental measures Personal respiratory protection TB during autopsy Spinal TB Laryngeal TB Tracheobronchial TB 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lul Raka
    • 1
  • Gjyle Mulliqi-Osmani
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of MedicineUniversity of Prishtina “Hasan Prishtina” & National Institute of Public Health of KosovoPrishtinaKosovo

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