Epidemiology of Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis

  • Ekaterina Kulchavenya
  • Kurt G. Naber
  • Truls Erik Bjerklund Johansen


Tuberculosis (TB) is a multisystem disease with a myriad of presentations and manifestations. It can affect almost any organ or tissue, excluding only hair and nails. Although extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is less frequent than pulmonary TB, EPTB is the secondary target for national TB control programs. The epidemiology of EPTB varies and depends on the epidemic situation of tuberculosis (TB) in the region, the epidemic situation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the level of poverty, the number of migrants, and even the classification of EPTB used in the region. Diagnosis of EPTB is difficult. The disease is often overlooked, so the real incidence and spectrum of EPTB are unknown. Nevertheless, the significance of EPTB has increased worldwide during the HIV epidemic. EPTB has not only medical but also great social importance as it is one of the most common reasons for both male and female infertility.


Tuberculosis Extrapulmonary tuberculosis Epidemic Urogenital Prostate Bladder Kidney Diagnosis M. tuberculosis Classification 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ekaterina Kulchavenya
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kurt G. Naber
    • 3
  • Truls Erik Bjerklund Johansen
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Novosibirsk Research TB InstituteNovosibirskRussian Federation
  2. 2.Novosibirsk State Medical UniversityNovosibirskRussian Federation
  3. 3.Department of UrologyTechnical University of MunichMunichGermany
  4. 4.Urology DepartmentOslo University Hospital and Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of OsloOsloNorway
  5. 5.Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus UniversityAarhusDenmark

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