Penalty Shutdown Mitigation in Wireless Sensor Networks Powered by Ambient Energy
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have great attention in recent years due to their powerful advantages such as low-power, wireless communication and easy deployment, which are suitable for monitoring applications. Moreover, to support a long system lifetime and batteryless WSN nodes, a combination of harvested renewable energy and two layer-based energy storages (e.g., capacitors), working on a hysteresis comparator with two different thresholds, is integrated into a WSN node. However, this approach suffers from a penalty shutdown issue due to quickly decreasing voltage in the primary storage (PS) that directly powers the WSN node. This issue leads to the shutdown of a sensor node in a quite long period, even if there is still sufficient energy in the secondary storage (SS) that is responsible for charging the PS when the renewable sources are absent. In this paper, we propose two solutions to mitigate the penalty shutdown issue in a WSN node. The simulation on OMNeT++ demonstrates that our proposed approaches can increase the energy efficiency up to 61% compared to the traditional approach.
This work is partially supported by GDRI Sense-South Project (https://groupes.renater.fr/sympa/info/sense-south-gdri).
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