States, IGOs, NGOs, Alt-state, and Anti-state Actors

  • Hall GardnerEmail author


This chapter illustrates how states possess differing geostrategic insular, quasi-insular, continental, and landlocked and shatterbelt characteristics that impact their defense and security concerns, and that can indirectly impact their hegemonic-core, core, “oasis,” semi-peripheral and peripheral political-economic capacities as well. States with these characteristics can be compared and contrasted across historical epochs. The chapter furthermore argues that the establishment of UN-backed Contact Groups—which can link states, IGOs, and NGOs and which can engage in diplomacy with anti-state or alt-state movements as well as rival states—represents one way to work toward a resolution of disputes that does not involve excessive international bureaucratic procedures and blockage.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.International and Comparative PoliticsAmerican University of ParisParisFrance

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