The History, Present and Future with IoT

  • Neha SharmaEmail author
  • Madhavi Shamkuwar
  • Inderjit Singh
Part of the Intelligent Systems Reference Library book series (ISRL, volume 154)


Human beings quest for making comfortable life is due to their inquisitiveness about technical arena. Over the last few decades, mankind had experienced technical transformational journey with the inventions of new technology frontiers. These frontiers have interacted with human beings and performed every possible work in shorter period of time and with a much greater accuracy. With the advent of ‘Smart Concepts’, the world is now becoming more connected. Precisely termed as hyper-connected world. The smart concepts includes smart phones, smart devices, smart applications and smart cities. These smarter concepts forms an ecosystem of devices whose basic work is to connect various devices to send and receive data. Internet of Things is one the dominating technology that keeps eye on the connected smart devices. Internet of Things has bought applications from fiction to fact enabling fourth industrial revolution. It has laid an incredible impact on the technical, social, economic and on the lives of human and machines. Scientists claim that the potential benefit derived from this technology will sprout a foreseeable future where the smart objects sense, think and act. Internet of Things is the trending technology and embodies various concepts such as fog computing, edge computing, communication protocols, electronic devices, sensors, geo-location etc. The chapter presents the comprehensive information about the evolution of Internet of Things, its present developments to its futuristic applications.


Internet of things IoT history IoT evolution IoT definition IoT trends Sensors Communication model IoT architecture IoT technologies IoT applications Future of IoT IoT Fog computing Edge computing 


  1. 1.
    Khan, R., Khan, S.U., Zaheer, R., Khan, S.: Future internet: the internet of things architecture, possible applications and key challenges. In: Proceedings of Frontiers of Information Technology (FIT), pp. 257–260 (2012)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alkhatib, H., Faraboschi, P., Frachtenberg, E., Kasahara, H., Lange, D., Laplante, P., Merchant, A., Milojicic, D., Schwan, K.: IEEE CS 2022 report; IEEE computer society: Washington. DC, USA (2014)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shen, G., Liu, B.: The visions, technologies, applications and security issues of internet of things. E-Business and E -Government (ICEE), pp. 1–4Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pal, A., Mukherjee, A., Dey, S.: Future of Healthcare-Sensor Data-Driven Prognosis. International Publishing Switzerland, Springer Series in Wireless Technology (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    International Telecommunication Union—Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T). Recommendation ITU-T Y. 2060—Overview of the Internet of Things; ITU-T: Geneva, Switzerland (2012)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hwang, J., Choe, Y.: Smart Cities—Seoul: A Case Study. ITU-T Technology Watch Report; International Telecommunication Union—Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T): Geneva, Switzerland (2013)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cisco: The Internet of Things Reference Model; Cisco and/or its Affiliates: San Jose, CA, USA (2014)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    OECD Committee for Digital Economy Policy: OECD Technology Foresight Forum 2014—The Internet of ThingsGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dutta, S., Geiger, T., Lanvin, B.: The Global Information Technology Report 2015—ICTs for Inclusive Growth. Geneva, Switzerland, World Economic Forum and INSEAD (2015)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Atzori, L., Iera, A., Morabito, G.: The internet of things: a survey. Comput. Netw.—Sci Direct 54(15), 2787–2805 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zeng, L.: A security framework for internet of things based on 4G Communication. In: Computer Science and Network Technology (ICCSNT), pp. 1715–1718 (2012)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ibarra-Esquer, J.E., González-Navarro, F.F., Flores-Rios, B.L., Burtseva, L., Astorga-Vargas, M.A.: Tracking the evolution of the internet of things concept across different application Domains, Sensors 17, 1379 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Laya, A., Bratu, V.I., Markendahl, J.: Who is investing in machine-to-machine communications? In: Processing 24th European registration ITS Conference, Florence, Italy, Oct. 2013, pp. 20–23 (2013)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dohler, M., Vilajosana, I., Vilajosana, X., Llosa, J.: Smart Cities: An action plan. Proceedings Barcelona Smart Cities Congress, Barcelona, Spain, Dec. 2011, pp. 1–6 (2011)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Vilajosana, I., Llosa, J., Martinez, B., Domingo-Prieto, M., Angles, A., Vilajosana, X.: Bootstrapping smart cities through a self-sustainable model based on big data flows. IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(6), 128–134 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hernández-Muñoz, J.M., Vercher, J.B., Muñoz, L., Galache, J.A., Presser, M., Hernández Gómez, L.A., Pettersson, J.: Smart cities at the forefront of the future internet. the future internet. Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 6656, 447–462 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mulligan, C.E.A., Olsson, M.: Architectural implications of smart city business models: an evolutionary perspective. IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(6):80–85 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Walravens, N., Ballon, P.: Platform business models for smart cities: From control and value to governance and public value. IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(6):72–79 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bellavista, P., Cardone, G., Corradi, A., Foschini, L.: Convergence of MANET and WSN in IoT urban scenarios. IEEE Sens. J. 13(10), 3558–3567 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Schaffers, H., Komninos, N., Pallot, M., Trousse, B., Nilsson, M., Oliveira, A.: Smart cities and the future internet: towards cooperation frameworks for open innovation. The Future Internet. Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 6656, 431–446 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cuff, D.; Hansen, M.; Kang, J.: Urban sensing: out of the woods. Commun. ACM, 51(3), 24–33 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lynch, J.P., Kenneth, J.L.: A summary review of wireless sensors and sensor networks for structural health monitoring. Shock Vibr. Digest 38(2), 91–130 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nuortio, T., Kytöjoki, J., Niska, H., Bräysy, O.: Improved route planning and scheduling of waste collection and transport. Expert Syst. Appl., 30(2), 223–232 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Soliman, M., Elsaadany, A.: Experimental evaluation of internet of things in the educational environment. iJEP 7(3), 50–60 (2017)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Elsaadany, A.: Campus crowd sensing platform using mobile computing for smart education environments. In: Proceedings of Fifth International Conference on Information Communications Technology, Alexandria (2015)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Atzori, L., et. al.: The social internet of things (SIoT)—when social networks meet the internet of things: concept, architecture and network characterization. Comput Netw 56(16), 3594–3608 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mashal, O.A., Chung, T.Y.: Analysis of recommendation algorithms for Internet of Things. In: IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference Workshops (WCNCW), pp. 181–186 (2016)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chandrahasan, M.: Survey on different smart parking techniques. Int. J. Comput. Appl. (0975–8887) 137(13) (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Al-Ali, A.R., Zualkernan, I., Aloul, F.: Amobile GPRS-sensors array for air pollution monitoring. IEEE Sens. J. 10(10), 1666–1671 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Maisonneuve, N., Stevens, M., Niessen, M.E., Hanappe, P., Steels, L.: Citizen noise pollution monitoring. In: Proceedings of the 10th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research: Social Networks: Making Connections between Citizens, Data and Government. Data Gov., pp. 96–103 (2009)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Li, X., Shu, W., Li, M., Huang, H.Y., Luo, P.E., Wu, M.Y.: Performance evaluation of vehicle-based mobile sensor networks for traffic monitoring. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., 58(4), 1647–1653 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lee, S., Yoon, D., Ghosh, A.: Intelligent parking lot application using wireless sensor networks. In: Proceeding International Symposium Collaborative Technologies and System Chicago, May 19–23, 2008, pp. 48–57 (2008)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kastner, W., Neugschwandtner, G., Soucek, S., Newmann, H.M.: Communication systems for building automation and control. Proc. IEEE, Jun. 2005, vol. 93, no. 6, pp. 1178–1203 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Evans, D.: The internet of things—how the next evolution of the internet is changing everything. Cisco Internet Business Solution Group (IBSG) (2011)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    McKinsey Global Institute, Unlocking the Potential of the Internet of Things, June 2015Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gartner Inc., The Internet of Things Is a Revolution Waiting to Happen, 30 April 2015Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    International Data Corporation (IDC) Explosive internet of things spending to reach $1.7 Trillion in 2020, According to IDC, 02 June 2015Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ashton, K.: That—Internet of things. Thing, RFiD J. (2009)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sundmaeker, H., Guillemin, P., Friess, P., Woelfflé, S.: Vision and challenges for realising the internet of things. Cluster of European Research Projects on the Internet of Things—CERP IoT (2010)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    RFC 7452: Architectural considerations in smart object networking (March 2015)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Thaler, D., Hannes, T., Barnes, M.: Architectural considerations in smart object networking. IETF 92 Technical Plenary—IAB RFC 7452. 6 Sept. 2015Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Int Area Wiki—internet-of-things directorate. IOTDirWiki. IETF, n.d. Web. 06 Sept. 2015Google Scholar
  43. 43.
  44. 44.
    Internet of Things. Oxford Dictionaries, n.d. Web. 6 Sept. 2015Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Belissent, J.: Getting clever about smart cities: new opportunities require new business models. Forrester Res (2010)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gubbi, J., Buyya, R., Marusic, S., Palaniswami, M.: Internet of things (IoT): a vision, architectural elements, and future directions. Future Gener. Comput. Syst. 29, 1645–1660 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bolt, R., Beranek, L., Newman, R.: A history of the ARPANET: the first decade; DARPA Report No. 4799; Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc.: Cambridge, MA, USA (1981)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Manley, J.H.: Embedded computers: software cost considerations. In: AFIPS ’74 Proceedings of the May 6–10, 1974, National Computer Conference and Exposition; ACM Press: New York, NY, USA, pp. 343–347 (1974)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    The “Only” Coke Machine on the Internet, Carnegie Mellon University, School of Computer ScienceGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Weiser, M.: The computer for the 21st century. Sci. Am. 265, 94–104 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Akyildiz, I.F., Su, W., Sankarasubramaniam, Y., Cayirci, E.: Wireless sensor networks: a survey. Comput. Netw. 38, 393–422 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Jason, P.: Bill joy’s six webs. MIT Technology Review, 29 September 2005Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ashton, K.: That ‘Internet of Things’ Thing, RFID J. 22 June 2009Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Roberti, M.: Jan. 16, 2005, “The History of RFID Technology”Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Taso (2014) SRI consulting business intelligence—the internet of things roadmapGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Gartner’s hype cycle special report for 2017, Gartner IncGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Google trends, google. (n.d.)
  58. 58.
  59. 59.
  60. 60.
  61. 61.
  62. 62.
    Samsung privacy policy—smart TV supplement, Samsung Corp. Web. 29 Sept. 2015Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Meet the Nest Thermostat. Nest. Nest Labs. Web. 31 Aug. 2015Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Marsan, D., Carolyn. (2015) IAB releases guidelines for internet-of-things developers. IETF J. 11.1: 6–8. Internet Engineering Task ForceGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    From the ARPANET to the Internet by Ronda Hauben-TCP Digest (UUCP)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Jian, A., Xiao-Lin, G., Xin, H.: Study on the architecture and key technologies for internet of things. Adv. Biomed. Eng. 11, IERI-2012, pp. 329–335 (2012)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lan, L.: study of security architecture in the internet of things. Measur. Inf. Control (MIC), 2012, 1, 374–377 (2012)Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    The Internet of Things, ITU Report, Nov 2005Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Chen, W.: An IBE based security scheme of internet of things. Cloud Comput. Intell. Syst. (CCIS), pp. 1046, 1049 (2012)Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Suo, H., Wan, J., Zou, C., Liu, J.: Security in the internet of things: a review. Comput. Sci. Electron. Eng. (ICCSEE), pp. 648–651 (2012)Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Wu, M., Lu, T., Ling, F., Sun, L., Du, H.: Research on the architecture of Internet of things. Adv. Comput. Theory Eng. (ICACTE), pp. 484–487 (2010)Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Cheng, X., Zhang, M., Sun, F.: Architecture of internet of things and its key technology integration based-on RFID. In: Fifth International Symposium on Computational Intelligence and Design, pp. 294–297 (2012)Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Bandyopadhyay, D., Sen, J.: Internet of things-applications and challenges in technology and standardization. Wireless Pers. Commun. 58(1), 49–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Zhang, Y.: Technology framework of the internet of things and its application. Electr. Control Eng. (ICECE), pp. 4109–4112 (2011)Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Khoo, B.: RFID as an enabler of the internet of things: issues of security and privacy. internet of things (iThings/CPSCom), pp. 709–712 (2011)Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Zhang, H., Zhu, L.: Internet of things: key technology, architecture and challenging problems. Comput. Sci. Autom Eng. (CSAE), 4, 507–512 (2011)Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Sohraby, K., Minoli, D., Znati, T.: Wireless sensor networks: technology, protocols, and applications. Wiley, pp. 15–18 (2007)Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Ghosh, A., Das, S.K.: Coverage and connectivity issues in wireless sensor networks: A survey. Pervasive Mobile Comput. 4, 303–334 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Sang, Y., Shen, H., Inoguchi, Y., Tan, Y., Xiong, N.: Secure data aggregation in wireless sensor networks: a survey. In: 2006 Seventh International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing, Applications and Technologies (PDCAT’06), pp. 315–320 (2006)Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Rao, B.B.P., Saluia, P., Sharma, N., Mittal, A., Sharma, S.V.: Cloud computing for internet of things and sensing based applications. In: 2012 Sixth International Conference Sensing Technology (ICST), IEEE (2012)Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Xiaohui, X.: Study on security problems and key technologies of the internet of things. In: Computational and Information Sciences (ICCIS), pp. 407–410 (2013)Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Global business research and analytics provider IHS Markit Accessed 09 Jun 2018
  83. 83.
  84. 84.
    Kopetz, H.: Internet of things. In: Real-Time Systems. Springer, Boston, MA, USA, pp. 307–323 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Neha Sharma
    • 1
    Email author
  • Madhavi Shamkuwar
    • 2
  • Inderjit Singh
    • 3
  1. 1.Society for Data SciencePuneIndia
  2. 2.Zeal Institute of Business Administration, Computer Application and ResearchSavitribai Phule Pune UniversityPuneIndia
  3. 3.BCL Secure PremisesDelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations