• Ana MárquezEmail author
  • Ernesto Trallero-Araguás
  • Albert Selva-O’Callaghan
Part of the Rare Diseases of the Immune System book series (RDIS)


The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) are a spectrum of rare and heterogeneous autoimmune conditions, mainly dermatomyositis (DM) and polymyositis (PM), characterized by muscle weakness. They show a very complex etiology in which both environmental and genetic factors seem to contribute to disease predisposition. During the last years, the development of large-scale genetic scans in different populations, including genome-wide association and Immunochip studies, has represented an important step forward to the understanding of the genetic basis of these disorders. These studies have confirmed the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region as the main genetic risk factor for IIM and identified novel non-HLA susceptibility loci, highlighting the existence of a shared genetic component between DM/PM and other immune-mediated diseases. However, a large part of the genetic basis of IIM remains unidentified, and, therefore, future efforts will be necessary to gain insight into this missing heritability, as well as on the functional consequences of associated variants. In addition, the role of epigenetic modifications in the IIM pathogenesis is being currently explored. Integrating genetics and epigenetics may offer a powerful approach to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in myositis.


Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies Dermatomyositis Polymyositis Genome-wide association study Immunochip Human leukocyte antigen Single-nucleotide polymorphism Methylation MicroRNAs Long noncoding RNAs 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ana Márquez
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ernesto Trallero-Araguás
    • 2
  • Albert Selva-O’Callaghan
    • 3
  1. 1.Systemic Autoimmune Disease UnitInstituto de Investigación Biosanitaria de Granada (ibs.GRANADA)GranadaSpain
  2. 2.Department of RheumatologyVall d’Hebron General HospitalBarcelonaSpain
  3. 3.Internal Medicine DepartmentAutonomous University of BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain

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