The Bottom Line

  • Karl WiderquistEmail author
Part of the Exploring the Basic Income Guarantee book series (BIG)


This chapter discusses how people that are designing and conducting experiments can work backward from the claims important to the public discussion of Universal Basic Income (UBI) to the claims experiments are able to examine. It suggests that UBI experiments should relate all findings to what it calls “the bottom line”: an overall assessment of the cost-effectiveness of a fully implemented national UBI. An issue-specific bottom line for any variable of interest should also be considered. Experiments cannot answer the bottom-line questions, but experimental reports can explain how their findings relate to those questions.


Basic income experiments Negative Income Tax experiments Social science experiments Basic income Universal Basic Income Inequality Poverty 

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Georgetown University in QatarDohaQatar

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