From Access to Equity: Community Colleges and the Social Justice Imperative

  • Lorenzo DuBois BaberEmail author
  • Eboni M. Zamani-Gallaher
  • Tamara N. Stevenson
  • Jeff Porter
Part of the Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research book series (HATR, volume 34)


In the United States, community colleges continue to serve as a critical pathway for populations underserved by selective postsecondary systems. However, the role of community colleges as democratic institutions advancing equitable outcomes is being confronted by contemporary policies which stress private returns and market-based outcomes. In this chapter, authors challenge this trend, (re)casting the role of community colleges as equity-centered institutions for advancing enrollment, persistence, and completion for a diverse set of learners. We explore the foundational evolution of community colleges, including the historical tensions between business interests and democratic principles; summarize key policies that shape community engagement and individual participation; and explore the threat of neoliberal forces for advancing social and economic equity at community colleges. Implications for contemporary theory and recommendations for future research are also presented.


Community colleges Access Broadening participation Diversity Equity Inclusion Pathways Postsecondary education Students of color Campus climate Completion Equitable outcomes 


  1. Allport, G. W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  2. American Association of Community Colleges. (2018, April). Fast facts. Retrieved from
  3. Aragon, S. R., & Zamani, E. M. (2002). Promoting access and equity through minority-serving institutions. In M.C. Brown & K. Freeman (Eds.) Equity and access in higher education: New perspectives for the new millennium (Readings on equal education, Vol. 18, pp. 23–50). New York: AMS Press.Google Scholar
  4. Ayers, D. F. (2005). Neoliberal ideology in community college mission statements: A critical discourse analysis. The Review of Higher Education, 28(4), 527–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ayers, D. F. (2009). Institutional contradiction in the community college. Community College Review, 37(2), 165–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ayers, D. F. (2011). Community colleges and the politics of sociospatial scale. Higher Education, 62(3), 303–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ayers, D. F. (2015). Credentialing structures, pedagogies, practices, and curriculum goals: Trajectories of change in community college mission statements. Community College Review, 43(2), 191–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baber, L. D. (2018). “Living in the along”: Validating experiences among urban community college students in a college transition program. Community College Review, 46(3), 316–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baber, L. D., & Graham, I. I. I. E. (2015). Enrollment and completion patterns among African American and Latino males attending Illinois community colleges. Journal of Applied Research in the Community College, 22(1), 1–11.Google Scholar
  10. Bahr, P. R. (2013a). Classifying community colleges based on students’ patterns of use. Research in Higher Education, 54(4), 433–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bahr, P. R. (2013b). The deconstructive approach to understanding community college students’ pathways and outcomes. Community College Review, 41(2), 137–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bailey, T. R., Jaggars, S. S., & Jenkins, D. (2015). Redesigning America’s community colleges. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bajt, S. K. (2011). Web 2.0 technologies: Applications for community colleges. New Directions for Community Colleges, 2011(154), 53–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Beach, J. M. (2012). Gateway to opportunity? A history of the community college in the United States. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.Google Scholar
  15. Bell, D. (2004). Silent covenants: Brown v. Board of Education and the unfulfilled hopes for racial reform. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Bivens, G. M. (2016). Retention and persistence through the lens of four Black women community college students. Doctoral dissertation. Retrieved on-line at https:/lib.dr.iastate/etd/15880Google Scholar
  17. Boggs, G. R., & Carter, J. J. (1994). The historical development of academic programs in community colleges. In G. A. Baker III (Ed.), A handbook on the community college in America: Its history, mission, and management (pp. 218–242). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  18. Bragg, D. D. (2001). Opportunities and challenges for the new vocationalism in American community colleges. New Directions for Community Colleges, 115, 5–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bragg, D. D. (2014). A perfect storm? President Obama, the great recession, and community colleges. In E. M. Zamani-Gallaher (Ed.), The Obama administration and educational reform (pp. 93–118). Bradford, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bragg, D. D., & Durham, B. (2012). Perspectives on access and equity in the era of (community) college completion. Community College Review, 40(2), 106–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brathwaite, J., & Edgecombe, N. (2018). Developmental education reform outcomes by subpopulation. New Directions for Community Colleges, 2018(182), 21–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brint, S. (2003). Few remaining dreams: Community colleges since 1985. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 586(1), 16–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Brint, S., & Karabel, J. (1989). The diverted dream: Community colleges and the promise of educational opportunity in America, 1900–1985. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Brubacher, J. S., & Rudy, W. (2008). Higher education in transition: History of American colleges and universities. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  25. Bukoski, B. E., & Hatch, D. K. (2016). “We’re still here... We’re not giving up” black and Latino Men’s narratives of transition to community college. Community College Review, 44(2), 99–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bumphus, W. (2018, March 30). What are community colleges? Are they vocational schools? Washington, DC: American Association of Community Colleges. Retrieved at
  27. Castro, E. L. (2013). Racialized readiness for college and career: Toward an equity-grounded social science of intervention programming. Community College Review, 41(4), 292–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Castro, E. L. (Ed.). (2015). Understanding equity in community college practice (New directions for community colleges, number 172). New York: Wiley .Google Scholar
  29. Castro, E. L., & Cortez, E. (2017). Exploring the lived experiences and intersectionalities of Mexican community college transfer students: Qualitative insights toward expanding a transfer receptive culture. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 41(2), 77–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Center for Community College Student Engagement (2014). Contingent commitments: Bringing part-time faculty into focus. Austin, TX: The University of Texas at Austin. Available online at
  31. Chang, M. J. (2005). Reconsidering the Diversity Rationale. Liberal Education, 91(1), 6–13.Google Scholar
  32. Chang, M. J., Astin, A. W., & Kim, D. (2004). Cross-racial interaction among undergraduates: Some consequences, causes, and patterns. Research in Higher Education, 45(5), 529–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ching, C. D. (2017). Constructing and enacting equity at a community college. Doctoral dissertation. Retrieved from
  34. Cohen, A. M. (2001). Governmental policies affecting community colleges: A historical perspective. In B. K. Townsend & S. B. Twombly (Eds.), Community colleges: Policy in the future context (pp. 3–22). Westport, CT: Ablex Publishing.Google Scholar
  35. Cohen, A. M., & Brawer, F. B. (2008). The American community college (5th ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  36. Cohen, A. M., Brawer, F. B., & Kisker, C. B. (2014). The American community college (6th ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  37. Community College Daily. (2018, March 29). Trump still unclear about community colleges. Retrieved on-line at
  38. Cox, R. D., & Sallee, M. W. (2018). Neoliberalism across borders: A comparative case study of community colleges’ capacity to serve student-parents. The Journal of Higher Education, 89(1), 54–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Crisp, G., & Nuñez, A. M. (2014). Understanding the racial transfer gap: Modeling underrepresented minority and nonminority students’ pathways from two-to four-year institutions. The Review of Higher Education, 37(3), 291–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Cuellar, M., & Johnson-Ahorlu, R. N. (2016). Examining the complexity of the campus racial climate at a Hispanic serving community college. Community College Review, 44(2), 135–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Davis III, C. H., Deil-Amen, R., Rios-Aguilar, C., & González Canché, M. S. (2015). Social media, higher education, and community colleges: A research synthesis and implications for the study of two-year institutions. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 39(5), 409–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Del Pilar. (2018) DACA postsecondary pathways. Presentation at annual comparative and international education society conference, Mexico City, Mexico.Google Scholar
  43. Diaz, V. (2010). Web 2.0 and emerging technologies in online learning. In R. L. Garza Mitchell (Ed.), Online education (New directions in community colleges, Vol. 150, pp. 57–66). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  44. Dougherty, K. J., & Townsend, B. K. (2006). Community college missions: A theoretical and historical perspective. New Directions for Community Colleges, 136, 5–13.Google Scholar
  45. Dowd, A. C. (2003, March). From access to outcome equity: Revitalizing the democratic mission of the community college. ANNALS, 586(4), 92–119.Google Scholar
  46. Dowd, A. C. (2007). Community colleges as gateways and gatekeepers: moving beyond the access “saga” toward outcome equity. Harvard Educational Review, 77(4), 407–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Dowd, A. C., & Bensimon, E. M. (2015). Engaging the “race question”: Accountability and equity in US higher education. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  48. Drake, E. (2008). Literature conceptualizing women in community colleges: 1997– 2007. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 32(10), 762–777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Drummond, M. (2002). History of community colleges. In M. E. Kenney, L. A. K. Simon, K. Kiley-Brabeck, & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Learning to serve (pp. 185–197). Boston: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Drury, R. L. (2003). Community colleges in America: A historical perspective. Inquiry, 8(1), 1–7.Google Scholar
  51. Eddy, P. L. (Ed.). (2017). Constructions of gender (New directions for community colleges, number 179). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  52. Edman, J. L., & Brazil, B. (2009). Perceptions of campus climate, academic efficacy and academic success among community college students: An ethnic comparison. Social Psychology of Education, 12(3), 371–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Eells, W. C. (1931). The junior college. Cambridge, MA: The Riverside Press.Google Scholar
  54. Fabricant, M., & Brier, S. (2016). Austerity blues: Fighting for the soul of public higher education. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press.Google Scholar
  55. Fagan, T., & Dunklin, S. (2014). Two and four-year college contexts for student veterans. In L. S. Kelsay & E. M. Zamani-Gallaher (Eds.), Working with students in community colleges: Contemporary strategies for bridging theory, research, and practice (pp. 129–142). Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.Google Scholar
  56. Feinberg, W. (1996). The goals of multicultural education: A critical re-evaluation. In Philosophy of education (pp. 182–189).Google Scholar
  57. Fields, R. R. (1962). The community college movement. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  58. Fisher v. University of Texas (2013). United States Supreme Court [570 US 297].Google Scholar
  59. Fox, H. F., Thrill, C. R., & Zamani-Gallaher, E. M. (2017, October). Serving racial minority students in STEM at minority-serving community colleges. Retrieved from
  60. Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
  61. Garces, L. M. (2015). The legal context and social science evidence in Fisher v. University of Texas. In U. M. Jayakumar & L. M. Garces (Eds.), Affirmative action and racial equity (pp. 4–20). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  62. García, H. A., & Garza, T. (2016). Retaining Latino males in community colleges: A structural model explaining sense of belonging through socio-academic integration. Journal of Applied Research in the Community College, 23(2), 41–58.Google Scholar
  63. Garvey, J. C., Taylor, J. L., & Rankin, S. (2015). An examination of campus climate for LGBTQ community college students. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 39(6), 527–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Gay, G. (2002). Preparing for culturally responsive teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 53(2), 106–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Gieryn, T. F. (2000). A space for place in sociology. Annual Review of Sociology, 26(1), 463–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Gilbert, C. K., & Heller, D. E. (2013). Access, equity, and community colleges: The Truman Commission and federal higher education policy from 1947 to 2011. The Journal of Higher Education, 84(3), 417–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Ginder, S. A., Kelly-Reid, J. E., & Mann, F. B. (2018). Postsecondary institutions and cost of attendance in 2017–18; degrees and other awards conferred, 2016–17; and 12-month enrollment, 2016–17: First look (preliminary data) (NCES 2018-060). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved July 5, 2018, from
  68. Gloria, A. M., & Kurpius, S. E. R. (1996). The validation of the Cultural Congruity Scale and the University Environment Scale with Chicano/a students. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 18(4), 533–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Gloria, A. M., Castellanos, J., & Herrera, N. (2016). The reliability and validity of the cultural congruity and university environment scales with Chicana/o community college students. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 40(5), 426–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Gratz v. Bollinger (2003). United States Supreme Court [539 US 244].Google Scholar
  71. Griffith, M., & Connor, A. (1994). Democracy’s open door: The community college in America’s future. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook Publishers.Google Scholar
  72. Hagedorn, L. S., & Zhang, Y. (2013). International students in U.S. community colleges: Status, Opportunities, and Future. In J. S. Levin & S. T. Kanter (Eds.), Understanding community colleges (pp. 53–68). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  73. Harbour, C. P., & Smith, D. A. (2016). The completion agenda, community colleges, and civic capacity. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 40(2), 100–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hardy, D. E., & Katsinas, S. G. (2007). Classifying community colleges: How rural community colleges fit. New Directions for Community Colleges, 2007(137), 5–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Harris, F., Wood, J. L., & Newman, C. (2015). An exploratory investigation of the effect of racial and masculine identity on focus: An examination of White, Black, Mexicano, Latino, and Asian Men in Community Colleges. Culture, Society and Masculinities, 7(1), 61.Google Scholar
  76. Harvey, D. (2007). A brief history of neoliberalism. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  77. Herndon, M. C. (2011). Leveraging web technologies in student support self-services. In T. Treat (Ed.), Technology management (New directions in community colleges, Vol. 154, pp. 17–29). San Francisco: Wiley.Google Scholar
  78. hooks, b. (2000). Where we stand: Class matters. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  79. Hornak, A. M., Ozaki, C. C., Latz, A. O., & Royer, D. W. (2018). Preserving the legacy of Dr. Jill Biden in a post-Obama era: Implications for student affairs professionals at community colleges. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 42, 818–823.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Hougaard, N. B. (2013). Making sense of the community college: Interrogating belongingness. Outlines. Critical Practice Studies, 14(2), 29–53.Google Scholar
  81. Jain, D., Herrera, A., Bernal, S., & Solórzano, D. (2011). Critical race theory and the transfer function: Introducing a transfer receptive culture. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 35(3), 252–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. James, T. C. (2017). African American students in a California community college: Perceptions of cultural congruity and academic self-concept within a black culture center (unpublished doctoral dissertation). InPepperdine university. California: Malibu.Google Scholar
  83. Jaschik, S. (2014, January 31). Obama vs. Art History. Inside Higher Education. Retrieved on-line at
  84. Jayakumar, U. M., & Garces, L. M. (2015). Affirmative action and racial equity: Considering the Fisher case to forge the path ahead. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Jones, W. A. (2013). The relationship between student body racial composition and the normative environment toward diversity at community colleges. Community College Review, 41(3), 249–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Jones, W. A. (2016). Factors correlated with the interactional diversity of community college students. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 9(1), 81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Jorstad, J., Starobin, S. S., Chen, Y., & Kollasch, A. (2017). STEM aspiration: The influence of social capital and chilly climate on female community college students. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 41(4–5), 253–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Koos, L. V. (1925). The junior-college movement. Boston: The Atheneum Press.Google Scholar
  89. Kotz, D. M. (2015). The rise and fall of neoliberal capitalism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  90. Ladson-Billings, G. (1995). Toward a theory of culturally relevant pedagogy. American Educational Research Journal, 32(3), 465–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Lau, J., Garza, T., & Garcia, H. (2018). International students in community colleges: On-campus services used and its affect on sense of belonging. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 1, 1–13.Google Scholar
  92. Lester, J. (2008). Future trends and possibilities for creating more gender equitable community colleges. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 32(10), 822–837.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Lester, J. (2010). Women in male-dominated career and technical education programs at community colleges: Barriers to participation and success. Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, 16(1), 51–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Lester, J. (2014). The completion agenda: The unintended consequences for equity in community colleges. In M. B. Paulsen (Ed.), Higher education: Handbook of theory and research (pp. 423–466). Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Lester, J., Struthers, B., & Yamanaka, A. (2017). Unwelcoming classroom climates: The role of gender microaggressions in CTE. New Directions for Community Colleges, 178, 67–77.Google Scholar
  96. Levin, J. (2001). Globalizing the community college: Strategies for change in the twenty-first century. New York: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Levin, J. (2007). Nontraditional students and community colleges: The conflict of justice and neoliberalism. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Levin, J., Kater, S., & Wagoner, R. L. (2006). Community college faculty: At work in the new economy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Levin, J., & Montero-Hernandez, V. (2009). Community colleges and their students: Co-construction and organizational identity. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Levinson, D. L. (2005). Community colleges: A reference handbook. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, Inc.Google Scholar
  101. Loss, C. P. (2011). Between citizens and the state: The politics of American higher education in the 20th century. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  102. Ma, J., & Baum, S. (2016). Trends in community colleges: Enrollment, prices, student debt, and completion. Princeton, NJ: College Board Research. Retrieved at
  103. Malcom-Piqueux, L., & Bensimon, E. M. (2017). Taking equity-minded action to close equity gaps. Peer Review, 19(2), 5.Google Scholar
  104. Marichal, J. (2010). Diversity for what? The paradox of university diversity and the new civic rationale. Journal of Public Deliberation, 6(2), 5.Google Scholar
  105. Medsker, L. L. (1960). The junior college: Progress and prospect. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  106. Milem, J. F., Chang, M. J., & Antonio, A. L. (2005). Making diversity work on campus: A research-based perspective. Washington, DC: Association American Colleges and Universities.Google Scholar
  107. Morris, L. K., & Daniel, L. G. (2008). Perceptions of a chilly climate: Differences in traditional and non-traditional majors for women. Research in Higher Education, 49(3), 256–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Moses, M. S., & Chang, M. J. (2006). Toward a deeper understanding of the diversity rationale. Educational Researcher, 35(1), 6–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Mullin, C. M. (2012). Student success: Institutional and individual perspectives. Community College Review, 40(2), 126–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Muñoz, S. M. (2015). Identity, social activism, and the pursuit of higher education: The journey stories of undocumented and unafraid community activists. New York: Peter Lang.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Murphy, D. S., & Katsinas, S. G. (2014). Community college budgeting and financing demystified. New Directions for Community Colleges, 168, 17–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Neufeldt, H. G. (1982). The community junior college movement: Conflicting images and historical interpretations. Educational Studies, 13(2), 172–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Newman, C. B., Wood, J. L., & Harris III, F. (2015). Black men’s perceptions of sense of belonging with faculty members in community colleges. The Journal of Negro Education, 84(4), 564–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Nguyen, T., Lundy-Wagner, V., Samayoa, A., Gasman, M., Wilson, A., Diggs, D., et al. (2015). On their own terms: Two-year minority serving institutions. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Center for Minority Serving Institutions.Google Scholar
  115. Normore, A. H., & Brooks, J. S. (Eds.). (2014). Educational leadership for ethics and social justice: Views from the social sciences. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  116. O’Neil Green, D., Knight, G., & Green III, M. D. (2014). Affirming acts for access and the evolving nature of affirmative action under the Obama administration. In E. M. Zamani-Gallaher (Ed.), The Obama administration and educational reform (pp. 187–204). Bradford, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Palmadessa, A. L. (2017). America’s college promise: Situating President Obama’s initiative in the history of federal higher education aid and access policy. Community College Review, 45(1), 52–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Park, J. J., Denson, N., & Bowman, N. A. (2013). Does socioeconomic diversity make a difference? Examining the effects of racial and socioeconomic diversity on the campus climate for diversity. American Educational Research Journal, 50(3), 466–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Pedersen, R. (2005). Conflicting interests in the funding of the early two-year college. New Directions for Community Colleges, 132, 5–17.Google Scholar
  120. Person, D., Dawson, R., García, Y., & Jones, A. (2017). The intersectionality of gender and race—Programs to support men of color in education. New Directions for Community Colleges, 2017(179), 67–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Pike, G. R., & Kuh, G. D. (2006). Relationships among structural diversity, informal peer interactions and perceptions of the campus environment. The Review of Higher Education, 29(4), 425–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Ponjuán, L., Palomín, L., & Hernández, S. (2018). Presidential leadership: Improving completion rates of Latino male students at Texas community colleges. Association of Mexican American Educators Journal, 11(3), 178–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Ratcliff, J. L. (1994). Seven streams in the historical development of the modern American community college. In G. A. Baker III (Ed.), A handbook on the community college in America: Its history, mission, and management (pp. 3–16). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  124. Rawls, J. (1999). A theory of justice. Cambridge, MA: Belknap.Google Scholar
  125. Regents of the University of California v. Bakke. (1978). United States Supreme Court [438 U.S. 265].Google Scholar
  126. Rentz, A. L., & Howard-Hamilton, M. (2004). Student affairs: An historical perspective. In N. Zhang (Ed.), Rentz’s student affairs practice in higher education (pp. 27–57). Springfield, IL: Charles Thomas Publisher.Google Scholar
  127. Rhoades, G. (2012). The incomplete completion agenda: Implications for academe and the academy. Liberal Education, 98(1), 18–25.Google Scholar
  128. Rhoads, R. A., & Valadez, J. R. (1996). Democracy, multiculturalism, and the community college: A critical perspective. New York: Garland Publishing.Google Scholar
  129. Rios-Aguilar, C., González Canché, M. S., Deil-Amen, R., & Davis III, C. H. F. (2012). The role of social media in community colleges. Report printed by the University of Arizona and Claremont Graduate University.Google Scholar
  130. Rodriguez, S. L., Massey, K., & Sáenz, V. B. (2016). Engaging Latino men in community colleges: The role of student-faculty interactions. Journal of Applied Research in the Community College, 23(2), 21–40.Google Scholar
  131. Rural Community College Alliance. Rural Community College as defined by 2013 farm bill. Retrived on-line at
  132. Sáenz, V. B., Mayo, J. R., Miller, R. A., & Rodriguez, S. L. (2015). (Re) defining masculinity through peer interactions: Latino men in Texas community colleges. Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 52(2), 164–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Sandoval-Lucero, E., Maes, J., & Klingsmith, L. (2014). African American and Latina (o) community college students’ social capital and student success. College Student Journal, 48(3), 522–533.Google Scholar
  134. Schram, S. F. (2015). The return of ordinary capitalism: Neoliberalism, precarity, occupy. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Shields, C. M. (2010). Transformative leadership: Working for equity in diverse contexts. Educational Administration Quarterly, 46(4), 558–589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Shumway, D. R. (2017). The university, neoliberalism, and the humanities: A history. Humanities, 6(4), 83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Smith, D. G. (2015). Diversity’s promise for higher education: Making it work. Baltimore: JHU Press.Google Scholar
  138. Snyder, W. H. (1930). The real function of the junior college. Junior College Journal, 1, 74–80.Google Scholar
  139. Stewart, D. L. (2017, March 30). Language of appeasement. Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved on-line at
  140. Sullins, W., & Atwell, C. A. (1986, April 1). The role of small rural community colleges in providing access. Community College Review, 13(4), 45–51.Google Scholar
  141. Taylor, J. L. (2015). Accelerating pathways to college: The (in) equitable effects of community college dual credit. Community College Review, 43(4), 355–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Taylor, J. L., Dockendorff, K. J., & Inselman, K. (2018). Decoding the digital campus climate for prospective LGBTQ+ community colleges students. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 42(3), 155–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Teranishi, R. T., Suárez-Orozco, C., & Suárez-Orozco, M. (2011). Immigrants in community colleges. The Future of Children, 21, 153–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. The White House. (2009, July 14). Remarks by the President on the American Graduation Initiative in Warren, MI. Retrieved at
  145. The White House. (2015, January 9). Fact sheet – White House unveils America’s college promise proposal: Tuition-free community college for responsible students. Retrieved at
  146. Torres, V. (1999). Validation of a Bicultural Orientation Model for Hispanic College Students. Journal of College Student Development, 40(3), 285–298.Google Scholar
  147. Townsend, B. K. (1995). Women community college faculty: On the margins or in the mainstream?. New directions for community colleges, 1995(89), 39–46.Google Scholar
  148. Townsend, B. K. (2008). Community colleges as gender-equitable institutions. New Directions for Community Colleges, 2008(142), 7–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Townsend, B. K., & Twombly, S. B. (2007). Community college faculty: Overlooked and undervalued. In K. Ward & L. E. Wolf-Wendel (Eds.), ASHE Higher Education Report. Hoboken, NJ: Association for the Study of Higher Education.Google Scholar
  150. Twombly, S. B. (1993). What we know about women in community colleges: An examination of the literature using feminist phase theory. The Journal of Higher Education, 64(2), 186–210.Google Scholar
  151. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, IPEDS, Fall 2017, Institutional Characteristics component (preliminary data).Google Scholar
  152. Valadez, J. (1994). Critical perspectives on community college education. In W. B. Harvey & J. Valadez (Eds.), Creating and maintaining a diverse faculty (New directions for community college (No. 87), pp. 81–86). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.Google Scholar
  153. Valenzuela, J. I., Perez, W., Perez, I., Montiel, G. I., & Chaparro, G. (2015). Undocumented students at the community college: Creating institutional capacity. New Directions for Community Colleges, 2015(172), 87–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Walpole, M., Chambers, C. R., & Goss, K. (2014). Race, class, gender and community college persistence among African American women. NASPA Journal about Women in Higher Education, 7(2), 153–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Watson, J. C. (2009). Native American racial identity development and college adjustment at two-year institutions. Journal of College Counseling, 12(2), 125–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Wattenbarger, J. L., & Witt, A. A. (1995). Origins of the comprehensive community college. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 19, 565–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Weis, L. (1985). Between two worlds: Black students in an urban community college. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  158. Welton, A. D., & Martinez, M. A. (2014). Coloring the college pathway: A more culturally responsive approach to college readiness and access for students of color in secondary schools. The Urban Review, 46(2), 197–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Witham, K., Malcom-Piqueux, L. E., Dowd, A. C., & Bensimon, E. M. (2015). America’s unmet promise: The imperative for equity in higher education. Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities.Google Scholar
  160. Witt, A. A., Wattenbarger, J. L., Gollattscheck, J. F., & Suppiger, J. E. (1994). America’s community colleges: The first century. Washington, DC: American Association of Community Colleges.Google Scholar
  161. Wood, J. L. (2014). Examining academic variables affecting the persistence and attainment of black male collegians: A focus on academic performance and integration in the two-year college. Race Ethnicity and Education, 17(5), 601–622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Wood, J. L., & Harrison, J. D. (2014). The 2020 American graduation initiative: A clear vision or dim view? In E. M. Zamani-Gallaher (Ed.), The Obama administration and educational reform (pp. 119–139). Bradford, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Wood, J. L., & Harris III, F. (2015). The effect of academic engagement on sense of belonging: A hierarchical, multilevel analysis of black men in community colleges. Spectrum: A Journal on Black Men, 4(1), 21–47.Google Scholar
  164. Yosso, T. J. (2005). Whose culture has capital? A critical race theory discussion of community cultural wealth. Race Ethnicity and Education, 8(1), 69–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Zamani-Gallaher, E. M. (2007). The confluence of race, gender, and class among community college students: Assessing attitudes toward affirmative action in college admissions. Equity & Excellence in Education, 40, 241–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Zamani-Gallaher, E. M. (Ed.). (2014). The Obama administration and educational reform. Bradford, UK: Emerald Group Publishing.Google Scholar
  167. Zamani-Gallaher, E. M. (2016). Community colleges and the massification of higher education. In P. Nuno Teixeira & J. Cheol Shin (Eds.), Encyclopedia of international higher education systems and institutions. New York: Springer.
  168. Zamani-Gallaher, E. M. (2017). Conflating gender and identity: The need for gender-fluid programming in community colleges. New Directions for Community Colleges, 179, 89–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Zamani-Gallaher, E. M., & Choudhuri, D. D. (2016). Tracing LGBTQ community college students’ experiences. New Directions for Community Colleges, 174, 47–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Zamani-Gallaher, E. M., Green, D., Brown III, M. C., & Stovall, D. (2009). The case for affirmative action on campus: Concepts of equity, considerations for practice. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lorenzo DuBois Baber
    • 1
    Email author
  • Eboni M. Zamani-Gallaher
    • 2
  • Tamara N. Stevenson
    • 3
  • Jeff Porter
    • 4
  1. 1.School of EducationIowa State UniversityAmesUSA
  2. 2.University of Illinois, Urbana-ChampaignChampaignUSA
  3. 3.Westminster CollegeNew WilmingtonUSA
  4. 4.University of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations