Development, Validation and RT Performance Assessment of a Platform for Driver-in-the-Loop Simulation of Vehicle Dynamics

  • Domenico MundoEmail author
  • Roberta Gencarelli
  • Luca Dramisino
  • Carlos Garre
Conference paper
Part of the Mechanisms and Machine Science book series (Mechan. Machine Science, volume 68)


Real-time (RT) simulation is a valuable tool in the design and testing of vehicles and vehicle parts, especially when interfacing with hardware modules working at a given rate, as in hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) testing. This scenario is typical when vehicles are equipped with active devices that provide the driver with driving assistance in critical conditions. A specific class of HiL simulation, also known as Driver-in-the-Loop simulation, is a powerful tool to test Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) through laboratory tests that actively involve the driver in simulated maneuvers. In this paper, the modular structure of a platform for DiL simulation of road vehicles is described, along with the hardware and the software components needed to enable the interaction of a human user with the simulated environment. The core of the platform is an efficient numerical model for vehicle dynamic simulation, which is developed by using a lumped-parameter formulation and validated by comparison against simulation results achieved with a high-fidelity vehicle model. An evaluation of the computational efficiency is also achieved by assessing the RT performance of the simulation model under a RT operating system.


Vehicle dynamics Driver-in-the-Loop Real-time simulation Lumped-parameter modelling Model validation 


  1. 1.
    Candreva, S., Mundo, D., Gubitosa, M., Toso, A.: On the correlation between a 3D high-fidelity multi-body vehicle model and a 15-DOFs vehicle concept model. In: ISMA International Conference on Noise and Vibration Engineering, Leuven, Belgium (2014)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Carpinelli, M., Gubitosa, M., Mundo, D., Desmet, W.: Automated independent coordinates’ switching for the solution of stiff DAEs with the linearly implicit Euler method. Multibody Syst. Dyn. 36(1), 67–85 (2016). Scholar
  3. 3.
    Garre, C., Mundo, D., Gubitosa, M., Toso, A.: Real-time and real-fast performance of general-purpose and real-time operating systems in multithreaded physical simulation of complex mechanical systems. Math. Probl. Eng. 2014, 1–14, Article no. 945850 (2014). Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gillespie, T.D.: Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics. Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hendrik, A., Schmid, C.: Driver-in-the-loop simulation for advanced driver assistance systems. In: 12th International Symposium on Advanced Vehicle Control, AVEC 2014 (2014)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pacejka, H.B.: Tire and Vehicle Dynamics, 2nd edn. Elsevier, Oxford (2006)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Domenico Mundo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Roberta Gencarelli
    • 1
  • Luca Dramisino
    • 1
  • Carlos Garre
    • 2
  1. 1.University of CalabriaRendeItaly
  2. 2.University Carlos IIIMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations