Final Remarks

  • Jakub GórkaEmail author


Górka presents findings from his study of interchange fee reforms. He shows the consequences of capping interchange fees for stakeholders, considering network and monetary effects. Key takeaways are given regarding the positives and the negatives of the interchange fee reforms in studied countries. Górka gives recommendations for policymakers how to well design the interchange fee regulation. The book puts the issue of interchange fees in the wider context of the entire payment system (innovation and competition, references to FinTechs, novel methods of payments, including digital wallets, bitcoins, real-time payments, etc.). There are examples from payment markets, references to the industry practice, and to other legal acts than just those regulating interchange fees, such as the revised Payment Services Directive (PSD2) in the European Economic Area.


Network effect Monetary effect Interchange fee Regulation Policymaker Innovation Digital wallet Real-time PSD2 


  1. Interchange Fee Regulation (EU) 2015/751 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2015 on Interchange Fees for Card-Based Payment Transactions, OJ EU L 123/1.Google Scholar
  2. Payment Services Directive (EU) 2015/2366 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 November 2015 on Payment Services in the Internal Market (PSD2), OJ EU L 337/35. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of WarsawWarsawPoland

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