Water Resources

  • Joseph AwangeEmail author
  • John Kiema
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)


Fresh water is one of the basic necessities without which human beings cannot survive since water is key to the sustainability of all kinds of lifeforms. Water has multiple uses namely; nutritional, domestic, recreational, navigational, waste disposal and ecological as it is a habitat for living and non-living organisms (biodiversity) etc. And, because it is indispensable to different sectors including manufacturing, agriculture, fisheries, wildlife survival, tourism and hydroelectric power generation, it is a vital factor of economic production. For many countries, most freshwater endowments encompass surface waters, groundwater, wetlands and glaciers. Surface water bodies include lakes, rivers, swamps, springs, dams and water pans dispersed within different basins. In general, people living in the vast arid and semi-arid parts of the world rely heavily on groundwater resources. Furthermore, groundwater is also an important supplementary source of water for many urban households in most developing countries.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Spatial SciencesCurtin UniversityPerthAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Geospatial and Space TechnologyUniversity of Nairobi NairobiKenya

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