Satellite Environmental Sensing

  • Joseph AwangeEmail author
  • John Kiema
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)


GNSS satellites such as GPS are playing an increasingly crucial role in tracking low earth orbiting (LEO) remote sensing satellites at altitudes below 3000 km with accuracies of better than 10 cm (Yunck in IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens 28:108–116 1990, [2]). These remote sensing satellites employ a precise global network of GNSS, GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) and Altimetry ground receivers operating in concert with receivers onboard the LEO satellites, with all estimating the satellites’ orbits, GPS orbits, and selected ground locations simultaneously (Yunck in IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens 28:108–116 1990, [2]).


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Spatial SciencesCurtin UniversityPerthAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Geospatial and Space TechnologyUniversity of Nairobi NairobiKenya

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