Maps in Environmental Monitoring

  • Joseph AwangeEmail author
  • John Kiema
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)


A map is an abstraction of reality that creates a model of the world or a part thereof, effectively projecting the curved surface of the earth onto a plane surface. Unlike images that model reality at an iconic level of representation, maps accomplish the same at a symbolic level. Maps are important communication, navigation and decision support tools. They also serve as mechanisms for both storage and communication of spatial data and information.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Spatial SciencesCurtin UniversityPerthAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Geospatial and Space TechnologyUniversity of Nairobi NairobiKenya

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