Fundamentals of GIS

  • Joseph AwangeEmail author
  • John Kiema
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)


Geographic Information System (GIS) is defined as a special type of information system that is used to input, store, retrieve, process, analyze and visualize geospatial data and information in order to support decision making, see e.g., [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6] etc. Hence, a GIS is basically a computer-based information system for handling spatially referenced data and information. In the early years after its emergence in the mid 1960s, GIS was viewed essentially as a mere tool - a spatial decision support tool.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Spatial SciencesCurtin UniversityPerthAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Geospatial and Space TechnologyUniversity of Nairobi NairobiKenya

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