CORONA Historical De-classified Products

  • Joseph AwangeEmail author
  • John Kiema
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)


The United States space programme included not only the open scientific program, but also classified satellites which were operated by the Air Force and the Central Intelligence Agencies, and these induced the top-secret CORONA program [1]. CORONA operated from August 1960 to May 1972 and acquired photographic images covering nearly two billion square kilometres over a 12-year period [2]. The last flight of the secret CORONA missions took place on 24 May 1972 [3], but the images were not released and offered for public use until February 1995 [1]. This declassification of major U.S. satellite reconnaissance programs offered a significant source of imagery to the civil community such as environmental researchers, archaeologists, historians, and other users, with over 800,000 images having been taken from space for many parts of the Earth [2].


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Spatial SciencesCurtin UniversityPerthAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Geospatial and Space TechnologyUniversity of Nairobi NairobiKenya

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