Environmental Monitoring and Management

  • Joseph AwangeEmail author
  • John Kiema
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)


A natural way to begin this monogram is by posing several pertinent questions. Firstly, what exactly does the term “monitoring” mean. Furthermore, is monitoring synonymous to measuring or observing? And more specifically, what does it mean within an environmental perspective? Monitoring has been defined by James et al. (Arid Land Res Manage 17:319–328, 2003 [1]) as observing, detecting, or recording the operation of a system; watching closely for purposes of control; surveillance; keeping track of; checking continually; detecting change. They state that since monitoring implies change, and change implies time, monitoring then means measuring those things that change in a system over time and space.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Spatial SciencesCurtin UniversityPerthAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Geospatial and Space TechnologyUniversity of Nairobi NairobiKenya

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