Non-liability in European and International Law

Part of the Palgrave Studies in Victims and Victimology book series (PSVV)


This chapter sets out the existing provisions on non-liability as found in European and international law. The chapter will present the text of Article 26 of the 2005 Council of Europe Convention on Action Against Trafficking in Human Beings and Article 8 of the Directive 2011/36 on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims, which are then dissected in subsequent chapters.


  1. Amnesty International and Anti-slavery. (2004). Memorandum on the Draft European Convention on Action Against Trafficking in Human Beings: Protection of the Rights of Trafficked Persons [Online].
  2. Blackstone, W. (2007). Commentaries on the Laws of England: In Four Books, Book 1. London: The Lawbook Exchange.Google Scholar
  3. Clough, A. (2016). Battered Women: Loss of Control and Lost Opportunities. Journal of International and Comparative Law, 3, 279–316.Google Scholar
  4. Council of Europe. (2005). Explanatory Report on the Convention on Action Against Trafficking in Human Beings, ETS 197, 16 May 2005.Google Scholar
  5. Elliott, J. (2015). Victims or Criminals: The Example of Human Trafficking in the United Kingdom. In M. J. Guia (Ed.), The Illegal Business of Human Trafficking. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.Google Scholar
  6. Gallagher, A. (2010). The International Law of Human Trafficking. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Grover, S. C. (2012). Child Soldier Victims of Genocidal Forcible Transfer Exonerating Child Soldiers Charged with Grave Conflict-Related International Crimes. Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  8. Hoshi, B. (2013). The Trafficking Defence: A Proposed Model for the Non-criminalisation of Trafficked Persons in International Law. Groningen Journal of International Law, 1(2), 54–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hoyle, C., Bosworth, M., & Dempsey, M. (2011). Labelling the Victims of Sex Trafficking: Exploring the Borderland Between Rhetoric and Reality. Social & Legal Studies, 20(3), 313–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Pham, J. (2015). Protecting Trafficking Victims from Porsecution: Analysis of the Modern Slavery Bill Defence [Online].
  11. Piotrowicz, R. W., & Sorrentino, L. (2016). Human Trafficking and the Emergence of the Non-punishment Principle. Human Rights Law Review, 16(4), 669–699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Risacher, B. J. (2014). No Excuse: The Failure of the ICC’s Article 31 “Duress” Definition. Notre Dame Law Review, 89, 1403–1426.Google Scholar
  13. Schloenhardt, A., & Markey-Towler, R. (2016). Non-criminalisation of Victims of Trafficking in Persons—Principles, Promises, and Perspectives. Groningen Journal of International Law, 4(1), 10–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Sheehy, E. (2016). Defending Battered Women in the Public Sphere. Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, 5(2), 81–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Trilateral Research & ConsultingLondonUK

Personalised recommendations