Experimental Design

  • Yang Liu
  • Francis A. Kulacki
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology book series (BRIEFSAPPLSCIENCES)


We report the design of a laboratory experiment in a frost layer is built in a controlled environment on a vertical surface. The objective is investigate defrost mechanisms on test surfaces with a given contact angle. The procedure generally involves creating a frost column with a certain thickness and bulk density and then melting it to determine defrost time, efficiency and conditions under which slumping is observed.


Defrost Time Test Surface Temperature Frost Layer Defrost Process Thermoelectric Modules 
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  1. 107.
    Liu Y (2017) Effect of surface wettability on the defrost process. Doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota, MinneapolisGoogle Scholar
  2. 10.
    Janssen DD, Mohs WF, Kulacki FA (2016) Frost layer growth based on high-resolution image analysis. Trans ASME 8:021018-1–021018-12Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yang Liu
    • 1
  • Francis A. Kulacki
    • 2
  1. 1.Graduate School at ShenzhenTsinghua UniversityShenzchenChina
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

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