Advertisement

Assessing the Potential Value of a SHM Deployment on a Proposed Footbridge

  • David D. T. NepomucenoEmail author
  • John Bennetts
  • Graham T. Webb
  • Matt Langhorne
  • Mike Johnson
  • John H. G. Macdonald
  • Theo Tryfonas
  • Paul J. Vardanega
Conference paper
Part of the Sustainable Civil Infrastructures book series (SUCI)

Abstract

A fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) cycle footbridge has been proposed for construction in Bristol, United Kingdom for South Gloucestershire Council. The superstructure will span 54 m, comprising a bowstring carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) arch with a 5 m wide glass fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) deck supported by stainless steel hangers. Recently, a methodology has been proposed that provides a structured process to assess the value of a structural health monitoring (SHM) system for a bridge prior to deployment. This methodology outputs a simple metric that quantifies the likeliness of an SHM system to yield value to an asset owner. This FRP bridge is used as a case-study to ‘road test’ this process. Two possible systems were considered: a system of accelerometers and a system of strain gauges. From the resulting discussions, a deployment of accelerometers received a value-rating (VR) of 4.2. A strain gauge deployment received 3.7. The scores will contribute to a monitoring specification for the FRP bridge which is currently in the design phase. Expansions to the methodology have also been proposed to better capture the potential value of an SHM system which would be of interest to structural engineers and researchers, in particular to inform model validation and research activities.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The first author would like to acknowledge support from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) through the National Productivity Investment Fund (Grant Number EP/R51245X/1).

References

  1. Bakis, C., Bank, L., Brown, V., Cosenza, E., Davalos, J., Lesko, J., Machida, A., Rizkalla, S., Triantafillou, T.: Fiber-reinforced polymer composites for construction-state-of-the-art review. J. Compos. Constr. 6(2), 73–87 (2002).  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0268(2002)6:2(73)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barbosa, R., Magalhães, F., Caetano, E., Cunha, Á.: The Viana footbridge: construction and dynamic monitoring. Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. Bridge Eng. 166(4), 273–290 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1680/bren.10.00048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Caetano, E., Cunha, Á., Moutinho, C., Magalhães, F.: Studies for controlling human-induced vibration of the Pedro e Inês footbridge, Portugal. Part 1: assessment of dynamic behaviour. Eng. Struct. 32(4), 1082–1091 (2010).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2009.12.034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Canning, L.: Mount pleasant FRP bridge deck over M6 motorway. In: Fourth International Conference on FRP Composites in Civil Engineering (CICE 2008), Switzerland (2008)Google Scholar
  5. Canning, L., Luke, S.: Development of FRP bridges in the UK—an overview. Adv. Struct. Eng. 13(5), 823–835 (2010).  https://doi.org/10.1260/1369-4332.13.5.823CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Composites UK: BRIDGES – Case Studies (n.d.). https://compositesuk.co.uk/composite-materials/applications/construction/bridges. Accessed 19 April 2018
  7. Dallard, P., Flint, A., Le Bourva, S., Low, A., Smith, R.M.R., Willford, M.: The London millennium footbridge. Struct. Eng. 79(22), 17–35 (2001)Google Scholar
  8. Design Manual for Roads and Bridges DMRB: BD 90/05: Design of FRP Bridges and Highway Structures, vol. 1 (Section 3) (2005). http://www.standardsforhighways.co.uk/ha/standards/dmrb/vol1/section3/bd9005.pdf. Accessed 26 June 2018
  9. Hanly S.: Accelerometers: Taking the Guesswork Out of Accelerometer Selection. Engineering Solutions, Midé (2016). https://blog.mide.com/accelerometer-selection. Accessed 21 April 2018
  10. Hollaway, L.C.: A review of the present and future utilisation of FRP composites in the civil infrastructure with reference to their important in-service properties. Constr. Build. Mater. 24(12), 2419–2445 (2010).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.04.062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hota, G.V.S., Hota, S.R.V.: Advances in fibre-reinforced polymer composite bridge decks. Prog. Struct. Mat. Eng. 4(2), 161–168 (2002).  https://doi.org/10.1002/pse.113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hoult, N.A.: Case study: Black River Bridge. In: Middleton, C., Fidler, P., Vardanega, P.J. (eds.) Bridge Monitoring: A Practical Guide, pp. 69–71. ICE Publishing, London (2016)Google Scholar
  13. Hu, W.H., Caetano, E., Cunha, Á.: Structural health monitoring of a stress-ribbon footbridge. Eng. Struct. 57, 578–593 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2012.06.051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ingólfsson, E.T., Georgakis, C.T., Jönsson, J.: Pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations of footbridges: a literature review. Eng. Struct. 45, 21–52 (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2012.05.038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kendall, D.: The business case for composites in construction. Reinf. Plast. 52(7), 20–27 (2008).  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0034-3617(08)70239-XCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kumar, P., Chandrashekhara, K., Nanni, A.: Structural performance of a FRP bridge deck. Constr. Build. Mater. 18(1), 35–47 (2004).  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0950-0618(03)00036-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mara, V., Haghani, R., Harryson, P.: Bridge decks of fibre reinforced polymer (FRP): a sustainable solution. Constr. Build. Mater. 50, 190–199 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.09.036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Metra Mess- und Frequenztechnik (MMF): Piezoelectric Accelerometers – Theory and Application (2001). http://www.gracey.co.uk/downloads/accelerometers.pdf. Accessed 21 April 2018
  19. Middleton, C.R., Fidler, P.R.A., Vardanega, P.J.: Bridge Monitoring: A Practical Guide. ICE Publishing, London (2016)Google Scholar
  20. Midé: Slam Stick: Shock and Vibration Data Loggers. Engineering Solutions, Midé (2017). https://info.mide.com/data-loggers/download-slam-stick-datasheets-page. Accessed 21 April 2018
  21. National Instruments: Measuring Strain with Strain Gauges (2016). http://www.ni.com/white-paper/3642/en/. Accessed 21 April 2018
  22. Parsekian, G., Shrive, N., Brown, T., Kroman, J., Seibert, P., Perry, V., Boucher, A., Ghoneim, G.: Full-scale testing of a fibre-reinforced concrete footbridge. Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. Bridge Eng. 162(4), 157–166 (2009).  https://doi.org/10.1680/bren.2009.162.4.157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Primi, S., Acero, R.L., Paulotto, C., Herrera, I.C.: Delivery of a 40 m long fibre-reinforced polymer composite footbridge in Madrid, Spain. Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. Struct. Build. (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1680/jstbu.16.00233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Russell, J., Wei, X., Živanović, S., Kruger, C.: Dynamic response of an FRP footbridge due to pedestrians and train buffeting. Procedia Engineering 199, 3059–3064 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2017.09.411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sá, M.F., Guerreiro, L., Gomes, A.M., Correia, J.R., Silvestre, N.: Dynamic behaviour of a GFRP-steel hybrid pedestrian bridge in serviceability conditions. Part 1: experimental study. Thin Walled Struct. 117(May), 332–342 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tws.2017.05.013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sebastian, W., Ross, J., Johnson, M., Twyman, C., Henderson, J.: Continuous monitoring and lorry testing of the Frampton Cotterell FRP road bridge. In: Proceedings of the 2015 ACIC Conference, Cambridge, pp. 21–26 (2015)Google Scholar
  27. Sebastian, W.: Case study: instrumentation and monitoring of the Frampton Cotterell FRP traffic bridge. In: Middleton, C., Fidler, P., Vardanega, P.J. (eds.) Bridge Monitoring: A Practical Guide, pp. 95–98. ICE Publishing, London (2016)Google Scholar
  28. Shave, J., Bennetts, J.: Some principles for designing safe and robust FRP structures. In: Halliwell, S., Whysall, C. (eds.) FRP Bridges: Conference Proceedings Full Papers from the 1st FRP Bridges Conference, 13th–14th September 2012, London, UK. NetComposites Limited, Chesterfield, UK, pp. 4–14 (2012)Google Scholar
  29. Shave, J., Denton, S., Frostick, I.: St Austell Footbridge: The first fibre reinforced polymer structure on the UK rail network. In: Proceedings of the 2009 ACIC Conference, Edinburgh, pp. 116–126 (2009)Google Scholar
  30. Shave, J., Denton, S., Frostick, I.: Design of the St Austell fibre-reinforced polymer footbridge, UK. Struct. Eng. Int. 20(4), 427–429 (2010).  https://doi.org/10.2749/101686610793557780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Siwowski, T., Kaleta, D., Rajchel, M.: Structural behaviour of an all-composite road bridge. Compos. Struct. 192(March), 555–567 (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2018.03.042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Skinner, J.M.: A critical analysis of the Aberfeldy Footbridge, Scotland. In: Proceedings of Bridge Engineering 2 Conference 2009 (April) (2009)Google Scholar
  33. Sonnenschein, R., Gajdosova, K., Holly, I.: FRP composites and their using in the construction of bridges. Procedia Eng. 161, 477–482 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2016.08.665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Thurlby, R.: Managing the asset time bomb: a system dynamics approach. Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. Forensic Eng. 166(3), 134–142 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1680/feng.12.00026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Vardanega, P.J., Webb, G.T., Fidler, P.R.A., Middleton, C.R.: Assessing the potential value of bridge monitoring systems. Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. Bridge Eng. 169(2), 126–138 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1680/jbren.15.00016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Votsis, R.A., Stratford, T.J., Chryssanthopoulos, M.K., Tantele, E.A.: Dynamic assessment of a FRP suspension footbridge through field testing and finite element modelling. Steel Compos. Struct. 23(2), 205–215 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.12989/scs.2017.23.2.205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Webb, G.: Structural Health Monitoring of Bridges. Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK (2014)Google Scholar
  38. Webb, G.T., Vardanega, P.J., Middleton, C.R.: Categories of SHM deployments: technologies and capabilities. J. Bridge Eng. 20(11), 04014118 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)BE.1943-5592.0000735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. WSP: Bridge visualisations. In: PK16/6500/F|Erection of an Composite Pedestrian and Cycle Bridge Linking Emersons Green East (Gateway) Development and the Existing District Centre, Across the A4174 Avon Ring Road (2016). http://developments.southglos.gov.uk/online-applications/applicationDetails.do?activeTab=summary&keyVal=OH7M8AOKISZ00. Accessed 27 June 2018
  40. WSP: Bridge cross-sections and elevations. In: PK16/6500/F|Erection of an Composite Pedestrian and Cycle Bridge Linking Emersons Green East (Gateway) Development and the Existing District Centre, Across the A4174 Avon Ring Road (2017). http://developments.southglos.gov.uk/online-applications/applicationDetails.do?activeTab=summary&keyVal=OH7M8AOKISZ00. Accessed 27 June 2018
  41. Živanović, S., Pavic, A., Reynolds, P.: Vibration serviceability of footbridges under human-induced excitation: a literature review. J. Sound Vib. 279, 1–74 (2005).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsv.2004.01.019CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • David D. T. Nepomuceno
    • 1
    Email author
  • John Bennetts
    • 2
  • Graham T. Webb
    • 3
  • Matt Langhorne
    • 2
  • Mike Johnson
    • 4
  • John H. G. Macdonald
    • 1
  • Theo Tryfonas
    • 1
  • Paul J. Vardanega
    • 1
  1. 1.University of BristolBristolUK
  2. 2.WSPBristolUK
  3. 3.WSPLondonUK
  4. 4.South Gloucestershire CouncilBristolUK

Personalised recommendations