Production of Building Bricks Using Cement Kiln Dust CKD Waste

  • Ahmed H. AbdulkareemEmail author
  • Saadoon O. Eyada
Conference paper
Part of the Sustainable Civil Infrastructures book series (SUCI)


Cement production is one of the most important industry and produce a lot quantity of by-product (waste) materials which called cement kiln dust, CKD. In Iraq about 1600 tons of CKD produced each day. Bricks can be produced using different methods, most of them uses the clay as row material and consists of firing process. Another method consists of using waste materials such as Fly Ash, FA. Most of researches focused on the use of CKD in road pavement applications and soil stabilization, etc., but rare researches used the CKD to produce bricks. Two types of CKD, two types of sand and one type of cement have been used in this study. The experimental work consists of three stages. In stage I, one type of CKD and one type of sand has been chosen to complete the stage II due to enhancement in mechanical properties (compressive strength, CS and absorption, Ab) of the produced brick. In stage II, the selected CKD and sand have been mixed with water and cement and pressed to form a molds using a pressure of 6 Mpa. The stage III aimed to enhance the compressive strength, CS and absorption of the produced brick by increasing compressive strength to 11 Mpa without increasing cement percentage to decrease the production cost. All of the properties of the bricks that were tested found to be satisfactory according to the ASTM C62-04(SW, MW and NW) and Iraqi Specification Standard ISS 25/1988, for type A, B, and C. The results of this study has the nobility of producing new type of brick using waste materials with low cost and without adverse effect on the environment and agriculture.


CKD Pressed brick Waste Recycling Novelty 



The authors thank Anbar University, Civil engineering department for their support.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Civil Engineering Department, Engineering CollegeUniversity of AnbarRamadiIraq
  2. 2.Civil Engineering DepartmentSelcuk UniversityKonyaTurkey

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