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Pseudo-Dynamic Approach to Analyse the Effect of Soil Amplification in the Calculation of Seismic Active Earth Pressure Distribution Behind the Inclined Retaining Wall for Inclined c-ϕ Soil Backfill

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Part of the Sustainable Civil Infrastructures book series (SUCI)

Abstract

In the current practice for the design of a retaining wall in the earthquake-prone regions, the study of seismic earth pressure is essential for the soil life-support system. Regarding the design of retaining walls in the earthquake-prone region, pseudo-static and pseudo-dynamic approaches are widely used for c-ϕ soil backfill without taking the effect of soil amplification. Soil amplification is very important and necessary factor to calculate the seismic active earth pressure analyzing the retaining walls. It should not be ignored in the design in the earthquake-prone regions. In this paper, a detailed formulation has been reported to calculate the seismic active earth pressure distribution along with the calculations of seismic active thrust for the inclined retaining wall. The retaining wall supports the inclined c-ϕ soil backfill. A parametric study is conducted to study the effect of various parameters like c-ϕ values of soil backfill, wall friction, soil amplification, horizontal and vertical seismic coefficients and the effect of time and phase difference in the shear waves and the primary waves. The results obtained for seismic earth pressure distribution is clearly showing the non-linear behavior behind the inclined retaining wall, which is the need for the design of retaining wall in earthquake-prone regions. The negative value of seismic active earth pressure distribution up to a normalized depth of wall is showing the zone of tension crack for the case of cohesive soil backfill.

Keywords

Retaining Wall Seismic Active Earth Pressure Backfill Soil Pseudo-dynamic Approach Soil Amplification 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of notations

γ

Unit weight of soil (kN/m3)

ω

Angular frequency (rad/s)

α

Assumed failure plane making an angle with the horizontal (º)

ψ

Time for propagating primary wave (s)

ζ

Time for propagating shear wave (s)

η

Wavelength of the vertically propagating primary wave (m)

af

Adhesion factor

ah

Horizontal seismic acceleration

av

Vertical seismic acceleration

c

Soil cohesion (kN/m2)

C

Total cohesive force (kN/m)

ca

Soil-wall adhesion (kN/m2)

Ca

Total adhesive force (kN/m)

fa

Soil amplification factor at top level

g

Acceleration due to gravity force

H

Height of wall (m)

i

Inclination of soil backfill (º)

Kae(t)

Seismic active earth pressure coefficient

kh

Horizontal seismic coefficient

kv

Vertical seismic coefficient

Pae(t)

Total seismic active thrust

pae(z,t)

Seismic active earth pressure distribution

pae/γH

Seismic active earth pressure distribution (in non-dimensional form)

Qh(t)

Total inertia force in horizontal direction (kN/m)

Qv(t)

Total inertia force in vertical direction (kN/m)

T

Period of lateral shaking (s)

Vp

Primary wave velocity (m/s)

Vs

Shear wave velocity (m/s)

W

Weight of soil backfill (kN/m)

δ

Wall friction angle (º)

θ

Wall inclination with vertical (º)

λ

Wavelength of the vertically propagating shear wave (m)

ϕ

Soil friction angle (º)

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringIIT RoorkeeRoorkeeIndia

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