Dynamic Properties of Surface Liquefied Site Silty-Sand of Tripura, India

Conference paper
Part of the Sustainable Civil Infrastructures book series (SUCI)


Due to increase in the rate of occurrence of earthquakes and associated damages, site-specific dynamic models are attracted to research in the recent past. The shear modulus degradation curve, damping characteristics and shear wave velocity profile are indispensable input properties required for carrying out the site response analysis. However, most of the site response studies are being carried out using existing dynamic model developed for generic soil. In the present study, results of resonant column and cyclic triaxial tests on reconstituted dry silty-sands specimens obtained from the recently liquefied site of Tripura, India is presented. The shear modulus degradation curve and damping ratio for a low (<10−3) to high strain range (up to 5%) are presented and compared with the available well-known curves and discussed. Also, the effects of confining pressure and relative density on dynamic properties are presented. Further, comparison has been made between the shear wave velocity measured in the liquefied field using Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) and laboratory results of low strain shear wave velocity. These results can be used for amplification estimation or micro-zonation studies in Tripura.


Shear modulus Damping Silty-sands Resonant column Cyclic triaxial In-situ shear wave velocity 



The authors thank the Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences (BRNS) of the Department of Atomic Energy (Dae), Government of India for funding the project titled “Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of Vizag and Tarapur considering regional uncertainties”, Ref: BRNS/36016-2016.


  1. Anbazhagan, P., Sitharam, T.G.: Evaluation of dynamic properties and ground profiles using MASW: correlation between Vs and N 60. In: Proceedings of 13th Symposium on Earthquake Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, December 2006, pp. 18–20 (2006)Google Scholar
  2. Anbazhagan, P., Mog, K., Reddy, G.R.: Liquefaction in Kanchanbari Tripura, India due to Moderate Magnitude Earthquake. Current Science (Under review) (2017)Google Scholar
  3. Debbarma, J., Martin, S.S., Suresh, G., Ahsan, A., Gahalaut, V.K.: Preliminary observations from the 3 January 2017, MW 5.6 Manu, Tripura (India) earthquake. J. Asian Earth Sci. 148, 173–180 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. GCTS-CATS: Resonant column & torsional shear test. User Guide & Ref 1.97:1-143 (2007)Google Scholar
  5. Seed, H.B., Idriss, I.M.: Soil Moduli and Damping Factors for Dynamic Response Analyses. Report No. EERC 70-10, University of California, Berkeley, December 1970. Also Section 5, Soil Behavior Under Earthquake Loading Conditions, Report to U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, SW-AA (1972)Google Scholar
  6. Hanumantharao, C., Ramana, G.V.: Dynamic soil properties for microzonation of Delhi, India. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 117(2), 719–730 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hardin, B.O., Drnevich, V.P.: Shear modulus and damping in soils: design equations and curves. J. Soil Mech. Found. Div. 98(sm7) (1972)Google Scholar
  8. Imai, T., Yoshimura, M.: The relation of mechanical properties of soils to P and S wave velocities for soil ground in Japan. Urana Research Institute, OYO Corp. (1972)Google Scholar
  9. IS: 1893 (Part 1): Criteria for earthquake resistant design of structures – Part 1: General provisions and buildings; Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi (2016)Google Scholar
  10. IS: 2720 (Part 14): Methods of test for soils: Determination of density index (Relative Density) of cohesionless soils. Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), New Delhi (1986)Google Scholar
  11. IS: 2720 (Part 3): Methods of test for soils: determination of specific gravity. Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), New Delhi (1980)Google Scholar
  12. IS: 2720 (Part 4): Methods of test for soils: Grain size analysis. Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), New Delhi (1983)Google Scholar
  13. Ishibashi, I., Zhang, X.: Unified dynamic shear moduli and damping ratios of sand and clay. Soils Found. 33(1), 182–191 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jafari, M.K., Shafiee, A., Razmkhah, A.: Dynamic properties of fine grained soils in south of Tehran. J. Seismol. Earthq. Eng. 4(1), 25 (2002)Google Scholar
  15. Kokusho, T.: Cyclic triaxial test of dynamic soil properties for wide strain range. Soils Found. 20(2), 45–60 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kramer, S.: L.(1996). Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering. Pren-tice Hall, New Jersey (2005)Google Scholar
  17. Kumar, S.S., Krishna, A.M., Dey, A.: Evaluation of dynamic properties of sandy soil at high cyclic strains. Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng. 99, 157–167 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ladd, R.S.: Preparing test specimens using undercompaction. Geotech. Test. J. 1(1), 16–23 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Maheshwari, B.K., Mahajan, A.K., Sharma, M.L., Paul, D.K., Kaynia, A.M., Lindholm, C.: Relationship between shear velocity and SPT resistance for sandy soils in the Ganga basin. Int. J. Geotech. Eng. 7(1), 63–70 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Rollins, K.M., Diehl, N.B., Weaver, T.J.: Implications of Vs-BPT (N 1) 6 0 correlations for liquefaction assessment in gravels. In: Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics III, pp. 506–517. ASCE (1998)Google Scholar
  21. Silver, M.L., Park, T.K.: Testing procedure effects on dynamic soil behavior. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng. 101(ASCE# 11671 Proceeding) (1975)Google Scholar
  22. Sitharam, T.G., Ravishankar, B.V., Vinod, J.S.: Dynamic properties of dry sands. Indian Geotech. J. 38(3), 334–344 (2008)Google Scholar
  23. Sykora, D.W., Koester, J.P.: Correlations between dynamic shear resistance and standard penetration resistance in soils. In: Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics II—Recent Advances in Ground-Motion Evaluation, pp. 389–404. ASCE, June 1988Google Scholar
  24. United State Geological Survey (USGS), 3rd January 2017, M 5.7 – 20 km ENE of Ambassa, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  25. Vucetic, M., Dobry, R.: Effect of soil plasticity on cyclic response. J. Geotech. Eng. 117(1), 89–107 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Woods, R.D.: Field and laboratory determination of soil properties at low and high strains (1991)Google Scholar
  27. Zhang, J., Andrus, R.D., Juang, C.H.: Normalized shear modulus and material damping ratio relationships. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng. 131(4), 453–464 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringIndian Institute of ScienceBangaloreIndia

Personalised recommendations