Advertisement

Radiological Imaging in Brain Disorders: An Overview

  • Valentina Ferrazzoli
  • Kshitij Mankad
Chapter
Part of the Clinicians’ Guides to Radionuclide Hybrid Imaging book series (CGRHI)

Abstract

The key role of neuroimaging in brain disorders is to assist clinical management by either making a precise diagnosis or providing clinically relevant differential diagnoses. There is a marked diversity of neuropathologies spanning a constellation of conditions including vascular, infectious-inflammatory, degenerative and neoplastic entities, and the clinical presentations can often be quite nonspecific, hence the key role of neuroimaging is formulating a management plan. Cranial ultrasonography (US), Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance (MR) are the currently available modalities of neuroimaging, each with its specific strengths and limitations. Overall, MR Imaging (MRI) is the most useful technique to study the brain, given its higher soft tissue contrast, although CT has a central role still in acute imaging and is also the best technique to investigate for associated bony disorders. Cranial US has a vital role in foetal and neonatal imaging given its bedside ease and the presence of a good acoustic window—the skull foramina in this population. This chapter focuses on those clinical applications of neuroimaging that complement the practice of nuclear medicine with special relevance to CT and MRI.

References

  1. 1.
    ACR-ASNR. ACR-ASNR practice guideline for the performance of computed tomography (CT) of the brain. Oak Brook, IL: ACR-ASNR; 2010.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ellingson BM, Bendszus M, et al. Consensus recommendations for a standardized brain tumor imaging protocol in clinical trial. Neuro Oncol. 2015;17:1188–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Welker K, Boxerman J, et al. ASFNR recommendations for clinical performance of MR dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion imaging of the brain. Am J Neurorad. 2015;36:E41–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    ACR-ASNR. ACR/ASNR practice guideline for the performance and interpretation of magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the central nervous system. Oak Brook, IL: ACR-ASNR; 2010.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Potgieser AR, Wagemakers M. The role of diffusion tensor imaging in brain tumor surgery: a review of the literature. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2014;124:51–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    ACR-ASNR-SPR. ACR-ASNR-SPR practice guideline for the performance of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the brain. Oak Brook, IL: ACR-ASNR; 2012.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    (NICE/SCIE) National Institute for Health and Care Excellence/Social Care Institute of Excellence. Dementia: supporting people with dementia and their careers in health and social care. Clinical guideline CG42. London: NICE/SCIE; 2016.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Martin-Macintosh EL, Broski SM, et al. Multimodality Imaging of neurodegenerative processes: part I, the basics and common dementias. AJR. 2016;207:871–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Duara R, Loewenstein DA, et al. Medial temporal lobe atrophy on MRI scans and the diagnosis of Alzheimer disease. Neurology. 2008;71:1986–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Josephs KA. Frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Neurol Clin. 2007;25:683–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shams S, Fallmar D, et al. MRI of the swallow tail sign: a useful marker in the diagnosis of Lewy body dementia? AJNR. 2017;38:1737–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    (NICE/SCIE) National Institute for Health and Care Excellence/Social Care Institute of Excellence. Parkinson’s disease in adults. Clinical guideline NG71. London: NICE/SCIE; 2017.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Seppi K, Poewe W. Brain magnetic resonance imaging techniques in the diagnosis of parkinsonian syndromes. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2010;20:29–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Broski SM, Hunt C, et al. Structural and functional imaging in Parkinsonian syndromes. Radiographics. 2014;34:1273–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    (NICE/SCIE) National Institute for Health and Care Excellence/Social Care Institute of Excellence. Epilepsy: diagnosis and management. Clinical guideline CG137. London: NICE/SCIE; 2016.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Téllez-Zenteno JF, Hernandez Ronquillo A, et al. Surgical outcomes in lesional and non-lesional epilepsy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Epilepsy Res. 2010;89:310–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Friedman E. Epilepsy imaging in adults: getting it right. AJNR. 2014;203:1093–103.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Saini J, Kesavadas C, et al. Susceptibility weighted imaging in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with intractable epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2009;50:1462–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Haque S, Law M, et al. Imaging of lymphoma of the central nervous system, spine and orbit. Radiol Clin N Am. 2008;46:339–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Akter M, Hirai T, et al. Diffusion-weighted imaging of primary brain lymphomas: effect of ADC value and signal intensity of T2-weighted imaging. Comput Med Imag Graph. 2008;32:539–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nandu H, Wen PY, et al. Imaging in neuro-oncology. Ther Adv Neurol Dis. 2018;11:1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lee EJ, terBrugge K, et al. Diagnostic value of peritumoral minimum apparent diffusion coefficient for differentiation of glioblastoma multiforme from solitary metastatic lesions. AJR. 2011;196:71–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Okada H, Weller M, et al. Immunotherapy response assessment in neurooncology: a report of the RANO working group. Lancet Oncol. 2015;16:e534–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Valentina Ferrazzoli
    • 1
  • Kshitij Mankad
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biomedicine and PreventionTor Vergata University HospitalRomeItaly
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyGreat Ormond Street Hospital NHS Foundation TrustLondonUK

Personalised recommendations