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Corneal Regeneration: Use of Extracorneal Stem Cells

  • Christian Claude Lachaud
  • Abdelkrim Hmadcha
  • Bernat SoriaEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Essentials in Ophthalmology book series (ESSENTIALS)

Abstract

Huge interest is focussed on promoting corneal tissue regeneration or creating artificial corneal tissue equivalents with stem cells (SCs), with a particular emphasis with SCs of extracorneal origin. In this way, Nishida et al. reported in 2004 the successful corneal epithelium regeneration of patients with limbal SC deficiency after the transplantation of an ex vivo cultivated oral mucosa sheet autograft. Since then, a growing list of stem and/or progenitor cells from extracorneal tissues has demonstrated promising results in preclinical models of corneal injury. With highest potential to bioengineer functional corneal epithelium, stroma and endothelium tissues are found embryonic and induced pluripotent SCs. On the other hand, discarded postpartum tissues (placenta, amniotic membrane and umbilical cord) and adult tissues also represent other promising extracorneal sources from where obtaining lineage committed stem and/or progenitor cells with specific potential to repair corneal tissues. Although somatic postnatal stem/progenitor cells are endowed with lower differentiation potential than pluripotent SCs, their applications for tissue engineering of corneal tissue equivalents appear much more attainable in the short term. This chapter gives an overview of the different types of extracorneal SCs that have been used for corneal epithelium, stromal and endothelium regeneration and also their applications.

Keywords

Stem cells Pluripotent stem cells Multipotent stem cells Corneal regeneration Corneal equivalent Cells transplantation Limbal stem cell deficiency Ophthalmology Regenerative medicine Tissue engineering 

Notes

Acknowledgement

Authors are supported by the nonprofit Fundación Progreso y Salud, Consejería de Salud, Junta de Andalucía; FEDER cofounded grants from Instituto de Salud Carlos III and the Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness (Red TerCel: RD12/0019/0028 and RD16/00259; CIBERDEM: CB07/08/0006; PI14/01015, PI16/00259, PI17/02104 and CD16/00118); and Junta de Andalucía (PAI-BIO311, CTS-576, CTS 11-727, PI-0109-2014, PI0007/2016 and PI0272/2017). CIBERDEM is an initiative of the Instituto de Salud Carlos III.

Competing Interests

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Informed Consent

No human studies were carried out by the authors for this article.

Animal Studies

No animal studies were carried out by the authors for this article.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christian Claude Lachaud
    • 1
  • Abdelkrim Hmadcha
    • 1
  • Bernat Soria
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Cell Regeneration and Advanced TherapiesAndalusian Center of Molecular Biology and Regenerative Medicine-CABIMER, Junta de Andalucía-University of Pablo Olavide-University of Seville-CSICSevilleSpain
  2. 2.Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas (CIBERDEM)MadridSpain

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