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Corneal Stem Cells: Identification and Methods of Ex Vivo Expansion

  • Christian Claude Lachaud
  • Abdelkrim Hmadcha
  • Bernat SoriaEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Essentials in Ophthalmology book series (ESSENTIALS)

Abstract

The discovery of corneal epithelial stem cells in the limbal basal epithelium, and their contribution to the homeostasis and renewal of the corneal epithelium, has supposed a tremendous breakthrough in ocular surface reconstruction, with limbal tissue graft transplantation providing for the first time a successful alternative to the transplantation of donor’s cornea in patients with limbal stem cell deficiency. More recent discoveries in the peripheral corneal stroma and endothelium layers of cells with stem/progenitor cells characteristics have opened up the promise of obtaining a supply of adequately differentiated cells for tissue engineering of corneal stromal and endothelial equivalents. Much applications based on the use of these corneal stem/progenitor cells are however still at the experimental stage, and their development will require to solve different challenges, such as optimizing their isolation and purification, improving their in vitro expansion, preserving their stem/progenitor phenotype in culture, and also defining the factors and signaling pathways which are required for their adequate differentiation. In this chapter, we recover past and current findings on the biological and molecular hallmarks of corneal layer-specific stem/progenitor cells, limbal epithelial stem cells, corneal stromal stem cells, and corneal endothelial progenitor cells and make emphasis on which are the different methods used for their isolation and ex vivo expansion.

Keywords

Cornea Stem cell Progenitor Regenerative medicine Limbal epithelial stem cell Corneal stromal stem cell Corneal endothelial progenitor cell Isolation procedure Cell culture 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Authors are supported by the nonprofit Fundación Progreso y Salud, Consejería de Salud, and Junta de Andalucía; FEDER co-funded grants from Instituto de Salud Carlos III and the Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness (Red TerCel: RD12/0019/0028 and RD16/00259; CIBERDEM: CB07/08/0006; PI14/01015, PI16/00259, PI17/02104 and CD16/00118); Junta de Andalucía (PAI-BIO311, CTS-576, CTS 11-727, PI-0109-2014, PI0007/2016 and PI0272/2017). CIBERDEM is an initiative of the Instituto de Salud Carlos III.

Competing Interests

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Informed Consent

No human studies were carried out by the authors for this article.

Animal Studies

No animal studies were carried out by the authors for this article.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christian Claude Lachaud
    • 1
  • Abdelkrim Hmadcha
    • 1
  • Bernat Soria
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Cell Regeneration and Advanced TherapiesAndalusian Center of Molecular Biology and Regenerative Medicine-CABIMER, Junta de Andalucía-University of Pablo Olavide-University of Seville-CSICSevilleSpain
  2. 2.Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas (CIBERDEM)MadridSpain

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