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Corneal Tissue Engineering

  • Mohammad Mirazul Islam
  • Roholah Sharifi
  • Miguel Gonzalez-AndradesEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Essentials in Ophthalmology book series (ESSENTIALS)

Abstract

Mankind has been always fascinated with the idea of restoring any damaged tissue or organ. Regarding corneal functional restoration, the French ophthalmologist Pellier de Quengsy was the first one proposing in 1789 a replacement of an opaque cornea using a piece of glass surrounded by a silver ring. However, the paradigm of corneal blindness treatment does not change until 1905, when Eduard Zirm performed the first corneal transplant to a patient using a donor cornea. Corneal transplant is still the most used and reliable treatment for some corneal diseases despite their three major drawbacks: the scarcity of donors, the risk of rejection and the transmission of infectious diseases. In this milieu, corneal tissue engineering emerges with the ambition of generating artificial corneas or other type of tissue-engineered products that lead to an optimal corneal regeneration, overcoming those major disadvantages of allogeneic corneal transplants. Once we understand the structure-function relationships in the cornea, we can generate a tissue-engineered corneal substitute to restore, maintain, or improve corneal functions, using different building blocks: cells, scaffolds and bioactive molecules. In this regard, here we briefly highlight some treatment options for corneal diseases based on different tissue-engineering strategies. Moreover, we explain the concepts and regulations necessary to understand the future clinical impact of tissue engineering in corneal therapy and surgery.

Keywords

Cornea Tissue engineering Artificial corneas Cell therapy Advanced therapies Scaffolds 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Mirazul Islam
    • 1
  • Roholah Sharifi
    • 1
  • Miguel Gonzalez-Andrades
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Massachusetts Eye and Ear and Schepens Eye Research Institute, Department of OphthalmologyHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

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