Mathematical Modeling of Real Time ECG Waveform

  • Shazia JavedEmail author
  • Noor Atinah Ahmad
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 858)


Electrocardiogram (ECG) is a digital recording of heart rate variability that is used to detect the cardiac disorders. Often these recordings are affected by physiological and instrumental noises that affects an accurate diagnosis of the disease. An exact understanding of ECG waveform may help in overcoming such issues. Mathematical modeling is efficiently used to understand the pattern of 12-lead ECG and simulate real time ECG’s waveform. Real ECG can be taken as a superposition of bounded functions and this property is a defining feature of almost periodic functions (APF). The proposed model has utilized this characteristic of ECG signals to generate the real time ECG waveform with negligibly small error.


12-lead ECG Almost periodic function Electrocardiogram 



This research work is preformed at the Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan and is an improvement of the research work done at the Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia. The work is supported financially by the Punjab Higher Education Commission (PHEC) of Pakistan.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MathematicsLahore College for Women UniversityLahorePakistan
  2. 2.School of Mathematical SciencesUniversiti Sains MalaysiaPenangMalaysia

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