Laboratory Investigations

  • Reiner Bartl
  • Christoph Bartl


These should be carefully chosen in the light of the clinical picture and results of the imaging techniques. However, it is worth mentioning that relatively few routine tests are diagnostically specific; exceptions are the acid and alkaline phosphatases and of course the specific markers of bone resorption and formation (see below). Nevertheless, laboratory screening, including the following blood tests, has proved its value in clarification of bone disorders.


Bone resorption Bone turnover Bone marker Diurnal rhythm Dietary calcium intake 

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Reiner Bartl
    • 1
  • Christoph Bartl
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Osteoporosis and Bone CenterMunichGermany
  2. 2.Center of Orthopaedics and Sports MedicineMunichGermany

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