Skip to main content

Understanding Islamophobia and Its Effects on Clinicians

Abstract

Islamophobia has been on the rise both in public discourse and in the media. The rising prevalence of this form of discrimination has significant mental health implications for the discriminators, the victims, and mental health clinicians. Conceptualizing Islamophobia as a form of religious and racial discrimination allows for greater exploration of the term itself and the negative implications of using the suffix “-phobia.” Continued use of such a misnomer may be a disservice to those suffering from religious and racial discrimination as well as psychiatric illness. Psychiatrists are very likely to come across anti-Muslim views espoused by patients and potentially even by other clinicians, which can be especially jarring. However, psychiatrists are also in the unique position of being able to explore and potentially challenge patients’ anti-Muslim views as they would any other distorted thought process in the course of treatment, lending to a possibility of more empathetic learning and understanding of our patients. As a result, it is important that we develop a framework to understand “Islamophobia” and consider its effects. The aim of this chapter is twofold: to offer a critical exploration of the basis of the term “Islamophobia” in order to develop a more nuanced understanding of the implications of its use and to discuss current trends in anti-Muslim sentiment in the clinic setting and offer a future framework for addressing them.

Keywords

  • Islamophobia
  • Psychiatry
  • Racism
  • Discrimination
  • Therapy
  • Muslim
  • Islam
  • Mental health

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-00512-2_16
  • Chapter length: 10 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   119.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-030-00512-2
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Hardcover Book
USD   159.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 16.1
Fig. 16.2

References

  1. Bleich E. What is islamophobia and how much is there? Theorizing and measuring an emerging comparative concept. Am Behav Sci. 2011;55:1581–600.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  2. Kuruvilla C. Huffington Post. [Online]; 2017. Available from: https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/muslim-girl-getty-images-stock-photos_us_58b895ebe4b05cf0f3ff2c70.

  3. Hardy B. Arkansas Times. [Online]; 2015. Available from: https://www.arktimes.com/ArkansasBlog/archives/2015/01/13/father-and-son-turned-away-from-muslim-free-hot-springs-gun-range-for-being-brown.

  4. De Sondy A. The Guardian. [Online]; 2016. Available from: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/jan/28/muslim-men-beards-facial-hair-islam.

  5. Said E. Orientalism. New York: Vintage Books A Division of Random House; 1979.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Desmond-Harris J. Vox. [Online]; 2017. Available from: https://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2017/2/2/14452388/muslim-ban-immigration-order-islamophobia-racism-muslims-hate.

  7. McCaig A. Rice University News & Media. [Online]; 2017. Available from: http://news.rice.edu/2017/09/14/islamophobia-represents-a-form-of-racism-mixed-with-cultural-intolerance.

  8. U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. [Online]. Available from: https://www.eeoc.gov/laws/types/race_color.cfm.

  9. United Nations Educational SaCO. UNESCO. [Online]; 1969. Available from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001229/122962eo.pdf.

  10. Sussman R. Newsweek. [Online]; 2014. Available from: http://www.newsweek.com/there-no-such-thing-race-283123.

  11. American Anthropological Association. [Online]. Available from: http://www.americananthro.org/ConnectWithAAA/Content.aspx?ItemNumber=2583.

  12. The University of Virginia. [Online]; 1996. Available from: http://www.virginia.edu/woodson/courses/aas102%20%28spring%2001%29/articles/AAPA_race.pdf.

  13. Hall S. Media Education Foundation. [Online]. Available from: http://www.mediaed.org/transcripts/Stuart-Hall-Race-the-Floating-Signifier-Transcript.pdf.

  14. Considine C. Huffington Post. [Online]; 2015. Available from: https://www.huffingtonpost.com/craig-considine/muslims-are-not-a-race_b_8591660.html.

  15. Living History Forum. [Online]. Available from: http://www.levandehistoria.se/fakta-fordjupning/islamofobi/definitioner-och-uttryck.

  16. Sayyid S. International Centre for Muslim and non-Muslim understanding. University of South Australia. [Online]. Available from: http://www.unisa.edu.au/Documents/EASS/MnM/commentaries/sayyid-racism-islamophobia.pdf.

  17. McIsaac J. The JAMA Network. [Online]; 2008. Available from: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/182347.

  18. Kelen G, Catlett C, Kubit J, Hsieh Y. Hospital-based shootings in the United States: 2000 to 2011. Ann Emerg Med. 2012;60:790–798.e1.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  19. Padela A, Adam H, Ahmad M, Hosseinian Z, Curlin F. Religious identity and workplace discrimination: a national survey of American Muslim physicians. AJOB Empirical Bioethics. 2015. p. 149–59.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  20. Wolfe M. Huffington Post. [Online]; 2016. Available from: https://www.huffingtonpost.com/michael-wolfe/muslim-biz-entrepreneurs-_b_9548540.html.

  21. Baig J. The Washington Post. [Online]; 2016. Available from: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/acts-of-faith/wp/2016/08/10/muslim-doctor-my-patient-refused-to-let-me-treat-her-because-of-my-religion/?utm_term=.f34a97a02c07.

  22. Edgell P, Hartmann D, Evan S, Gerteis J. Atheists and other cultural outsiders: moral boundaries and the non-religious in the United States. Soc Forces. 2016;95:607–38.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  23. Shanafelt T, Boone S, Tan L. Burnout and satisfaction with work-life balance among US physicians relative to the general US population. Arch Intern Med. 2012;172:1377–85.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  24. Kimani P-E. Dealing with racist patients. N Engl J Med. 2016;374:708–11.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  25. Lynch M. The Washington Post. [Online]; 2017. Available from: https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=5&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwio2-razqHYAhUDWCYKHQJ1C0AQFgg4MAQ&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.washingtonpost.com%2Fnews%2Fmonkey-cage%2Fwp%2F2017%2F02%2F20%2Funiversities-overwhelmingly-objected-to-the-trump-travel-ban-here-are-the-values-they-emphasized%2F&usg=AOvVaw3lz8fMo4dh1OGq-AAE7Qwi.

  26. Penn State Health. [Online]. Available from: http://hmc.pennstatehealth.org/documents/11396232/11459793/Patient+Rights+Policy+PC-33-HAM/b4f54eb1-7183-43cb-a606-640be66a84c8.

  27. National Sexual Violence Resource Center. [Online]. Available from: https://www.nsvrc.org/projects/engaging-bystanders-sexual-violence-prevention/bystander-intervention-resources.

  28. Department of Homeland Security. [Online]. Available from: https://www.dhs.gov/see-something-say-something.

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Samaiya Mushtaq .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2019 Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Mushtaq, S., Bhatti, S. (2019). Understanding Islamophobia and Its Effects on Clinicians. In: Moffic, H., Peteet, J., Hankir, A., Awaad, R. (eds) Islamophobia and Psychiatry. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-00512-2_16

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-00512-2_16

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-030-00511-5

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-030-00512-2

  • eBook Packages: MedicineMedicine (R0)