Skip to main content

Challenges of Islamophobia: Psychiatric Considerations for Effectively Working with Muslim Patients

Abstract

The significant change in the sociopolitical climate of the world after 9/11 in the United States and after 7/7 in the United Kingdom has undoubtedly created a tension between Islam and the West. Furthermore, this has increased the fears that continued conflicts between Islam and the West could lead to even more severe and global turmoil (Chomsky and Achcar). Perilous power: the Middle East & US Foreign policy: dialogues on terror, democracy, war, and justice. London: Paradigm Publishers; 2006). Islam is the second largest religion practiced in the world today with approximately 1.6 billion followers. In the United States, the estimated number of Muslims is between five and seven million followers, 1.1% of the total population (Pew Research Center. US Muslims concerned about their place in society. Pew Research Center; 2017). Muslims in America are among the most diverse groups of individuals. Of the 60% immigrant Muslim Americans, more than 75% are African Americans, Arabs, and South Asians (Pew. Muslim Americans: no signs of growth in alienation or support for extremism. 2011. Retrieved 11 04, 2013, from Pew Research: Center for the People and the Press. http://www.people-press.org/2011/08/30/muslim-americans-no-signs-of-growth-in-alienation-or-support-for-extremism/). Since 9/11, increased Islamophobia has contributed to the process of racialization of Muslims and increased religious bigotry against Muslims with 45% of the general population considering Muslims to be violent (Pew Research Center. Muslim-Western tensions persist. Global attitudes project. Washington DC: Pew Research Center; 2011; Nussbaum. The new religious intolerance: overcoming the politics of fear in an anxious age. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; 2012).

Islamophobia, along with diverse and complex cultural and religious systems, has undoubtedly created challenges for mental health providers. This paper will focus on understanding Muslim Americans and their specific needs and how to work effectively with Muslim American patients as a mental health practitioner.

Keywords

  • Islamophobia
  • Muslim
  • Mental health
  • Psychiatric considerations
  • Medications
  • Therapy

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-00512-2_15
  • Chapter length: 11 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   119.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-030-00512-2
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Hardcover Book
USD   159.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 15.1

References

References

  1. Abbott D, Springer P, Hollist C. Therapy with immigrant Muslim couples: applying culturally appropriate interventions and strategies. J Couple Relatsh Ther. 2012;11(3):254–66.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  2. Abu Raiya H, Pargament K, Mahoney A, Stein C. A psychological measure of Islamic religiousness: development and evidence for reliability and validity. Int J Psychol Relig. 2008;18(4):291–315.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  3. Abudabbeh N. Counseling Arab American families. In: Communian A, editor. The family and family therapy in international perspective. Trieste: Edizioni Lint Trieste; 1998. p. 115–26.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Abu-Ras W. Barriers to services for Arab immigrant bartered women in a Detroit suburb. J Soc Work Res Eval. 2003;1(4):49–65.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Al-Krenawi A, Graham J. Culturally sensitive social work practice with Arabs clients in mental health settings. Health Soc Work. 2000;25:9–22.

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  6. Al-Krenawi A, Graham J. Marital therapy for Arab Muslim Palestinian couples in the context of reacculturation. Fam J. 2005;13:300–10.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  7. Aloud N, Rathur A. Factors affecting attitudes towards seeking and using formal mental health and psychological services among Arab Muslim populations. J Muslim Ment Health. 2009;4:79–103.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  8. Al-Subaie A, Alhamad A. Al-Jun¯un: mental illness in the Islamic world. Madison: International Universities Press; 2000.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Amri S, Bemak F. Mental health help-seeking behaviors of Muslim immigrants in the United States: overcoming social stigma and cultural mistrust. J Muslim Ment Health. 2012;7(1):43–63.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Bagby I, Perl P, Froehle B. The mosque in America: a national portrait. A report from the mosque study project. Washington, DC: Council on American-Islamic Relations; 2001.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Berry J. Immigration, acculturation, and adaptation. Appl Psychol Int Rev. 1997;46(1):5–34.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Bird L, Amer M, Barnett E, Barnes L. Muslim patients and health disparities in the UK and the US. Arch Dis Child. 2007;92(10):922–6.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  13. Bouhdiba A, Sheridan A. Sexuality in Islam. London: Saqi Books; 2006.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Chrisman A, Adam B, Abassi F, Malik Z. Issues to consider when engaging with Muslim youth in psychiatric care. American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2016. https://www.aacap.org/App_Themes/AACAP/docs/homepage/headlines/2016/Issues_to_Consider_When_Engaging_Muslim_Youth_in_Psychiatric_Care.pdf.

  15. Ciftci A, Jones N, Corrigan P. Mental health stigma in the Muslim community. J Muslim Ment Health. 2013;7(1):17–32.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  16. Corrigan P, Larson J, Rusch N. Self-stigma and the “why try” effect: impact on life goals and evidence-based practices. World Psychiatry. 2009;8(2):75–81.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  17. El-Zein A. Islam, Arabs, and the intelligent world of the jinn. New York: Syracuse University Press; 2009.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Gallup. Muslim Americans exemplify diversity, potential. 2009. Retrieved 10 14, 2013, from Gallup World: http://www.gallup.com/poll/116260/muslim-americans-exemplify-diversity-potential.aspx.

  19. Ghorbani N, Watson P, Geranmayepour S, Chen Z. Measuring Muslim spirituality: relationships of Muslim experiential religiousness with religious and psychological adjustment in Iran. J Muslim Ment Health. 2014;8(1):77–94.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  20. Goffman E. Stigma: notes on the management of spoiled identity. New York: Simon and Schuster; 1963.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Haque A. Religion and mental health: the case of American Muslims. J Relig Health. 2004;43(1):45–58.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  22. Hodge D, Nadir A. Moving toward culturally competent practice with Muslims: modifying cognitive therapy with Islamic tenets. Soc Work. 2008;53(1):31–41.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  23. Inayat Q. Islamophobia and the therapeutic dialogue: some reflections. Couns Psychol Q. 2007;20(3):287–93.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  24. Johnson T. Muslims in the United States. 2011. Retrieved 10 10, 2013, from Council on Foreign Affairs: http://www.cfr.org/united-states/muslims-united-states/p25927.

  25. Khan Z. Attitudes toward counseling and alternative support among Muslims in Toledo, Ohio. J Muslim Ment Health. 2006;1:21–42.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  26. Leary K. In the eye of the storm. Psychoanal Q. 2006;75(1):345–63.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  27. McMinn M, Dominquez A. Psychology and the Church. Hauppauge: Nova Science; 2005.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Mir G, Meer S, Cottrell D, McMillan D, House A, Kanter J. Adapted behavioural activation for the treatment of depression in Muslims. J Affect Disord. 2015;180:190–9.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  29. Muslim Americans Demographic Facts. Retrieved 08 20, 2017, from http://www.allied-media.com/AM/. 2010.

  30. Padela A, Curlin F. Religion and disparities: considering the influences of Islam on the health of American Muslims. J Relig Health. 2013;52(4):1333–45.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  31. Padela A, del Pozo P. Muslim patients and cross-gender interactions in medicine: an Islamic bioethical perspective. J Med Ethics. 2011;37(1):40–4.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  32. Padela A, Killawi A, Heisler M, Demonner S, Fetters M. The role of imams in American Muslim health: perspectives of Muslim community leaders in Southeast Michigan. J Relig Health. 2010;50:359–73.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  33. Pew Research Center. Muslim Americans: middle class and mostly mainstream. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center; 2007.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Pumariega A, Rothe E, Mian A, Carlisle L, Toppelberg C, Harris T, Gogineni RR, Webb S, Smith J, American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) Committee on Quality Issues (CQI). Practice parameter for cultural competence in child and adolescent psychiatric practice. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2013;52(10):1101–15.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  35. Risper-Chaim V. Islamic medical ethics in the twentieth century. 1st ed. Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers; 1993.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Sabry W, Vohra A. Role of Islam in the management of psychiatric disorders. Indian J Psychiatry. 2013;55(2):S205–14.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  37. Safran J, Muran J, Eubanks-Carter C. Repairing alliance ruptures. Psychotherapy. 2011;48(1):80–7.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  38. Shibre T, Negash A, Kullgren G, Kebede D, Alem A, Fekadu A, Jacobson L. Perception of stigma among family members of individuals with schizophrenia and major affective disorders in rural Ethiopia. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2001;36:299–303.

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  39. Sirin S, Fine M. Hyphenated selves: Muslim American youth negotiating identities on the fault lines of global conflict. Appl Dev Sci. 2007;11(3):151–63.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  40. Tummala-Narra P. Cultural competence as a core emphasis of psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Psychoanal Psychol. 2015;32(2):275–92.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Suggested Reading

  1. Chomsky N, Achcar G. Perilous power: the Middle East & U.S. foreign policy: dialogues on terror, democracy, war, and justice. London: Paradigm Publishers; 2006.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Nussbaum MC. The new religious intolerance: overcoming the politics of fear in an anxious age. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; 2012.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  3. Pew. Muslim Americans: no signs of growth in alienation or support for extremism. 2011. Retrieved 11 04, 2013, from Pew Research: Center for the People and the Press. http://www.people-press.org/2011/08/30/muslim-americans-no-signs-of-growth-in-alienation-or-support-for-extremism/.

  4. Pew Research Center. Muslim-Western tensions persist. Global attitudes project. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center; 2011.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Pew Research Center. US Muslims concerned about their place in society. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center; 2017.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2019 Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Khan, F. (2019). Challenges of Islamophobia: Psychiatric Considerations for Effectively Working with Muslim Patients. In: Moffic, H., Peteet, J., Hankir, A., Awaad, R. (eds) Islamophobia and Psychiatry. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-00512-2_15

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-00512-2_15

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-030-00511-5

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-030-00512-2

  • eBook Packages: MedicineMedicine (R0)