What Is Hate?



In this chapter, I tried to explain the hate in light of the available psychology literature. I tried to define general human feeling of hate with examples in two important components: “threatened egotism” and “perceived injustice”. I focused on threatened egotism and perceive injustice as the major root-causes of feeling of hate and anger. I used Sternberg’s hate classification in order to define the various dimensions of hate. I have discussed various forms of hate from low level to high level (or alternatively severe hate) in terms of Sternberg’s Triangular hate model. After reading this chapter, readers should have a basic understanding of the concept of hate and its dimensions.


Hate Threatened egotism Perceived injustice Dimensions of hate Hierarchy of hate Severity of hate 


  1. Baumeister, F. R., & Butz, D. A. (2005). Roots of hate, violence, and evil. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), The psychology of hate (pp. 87–102). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baumeister, F. R., Smart, L., & Boden, J. M. (1996). Relation of threatened egotism to violence and aggressions: The dark side of high self-esteem. Psychological Review, 103, 5–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beck, T. A. (1999). Prisoners of hate: The cognitive basis of anger, hostility, and violence. New York: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  4. Beck, T. A., & Pretzer, J. (2005). A cognitive perspective on hate and violence. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), The psychology of hate (pp. 67–85). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bushman, B. J., & Baumeister, R. F. (1998). Threatened egotism, narcissism, self- esteem, and direct and displaced aggression: Does self-love or self-hate lead to violence? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 219–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Davitz, J. (1969). The language of emotion. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  7. Fitness, J. (2000). Anger in the workplace: An emotion script approach to anger episodes between workers and their superiors, co-workers and subordinates. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(2), 147–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fitness, J., & Fletcher, G. J. O. (1993). Love, hate, anger, and jealousy in close relationships: A prototype and cognitive appraisal analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 942–958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fossati, P., Hevenor, S., Graham, S., Grady, C., Keightley, M., Craik, F., et al. (2003). In search of the emotional self: An fMRI study using positive and negative emotional words. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 1938–1945.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Frankfurt, H. G. (1971). Freedom of the will and the concept of a person. The Journal of Philosophy, 68(1), 5–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Freud, S. (1943). A general introduction to psychoanalysis. Garden City and New York: Garden City Publishing Company, Inc.Google Scholar
  12. Freud, S. (1957). The taboo of virginity (Contribution to psychology of love III.). In J. Strachey (Ed. & Trans.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 11, pp. 192–208). London: Hogarth Press (Original work published 1918).Google Scholar
  13. Gabbard, G. O. (1993). On hate in love relationships: The narcissism of minor differences revisited. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 62(2), 229–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gaylin, W. (2003). Hatred: The psychological descent into violence. New York: Public Affairs.Google Scholar
  15. Glaser, J. E., & Glaser, R. D. (2014). The neurochemistry of positive conversations. Harvard Business Review. Recuperado de:
  16. Hazlitt, A. W. (1995). On the pleasure of hating. In P. Lopate (Ed.), The art of the personal essay: An anthology from the classical ear to the present (pp. 189–198). New York: Anchor Books (Original work published 1826).Google Scholar
  17. Ito, T., Larsen, J., Smith, N., & Cacioppo, J. (1998). Negative information weighs more heavily on the brain: The negativity bias in evaluative categorizations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 887–900.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jin, W., Xiang, Y., & Lei, M. (2017, December 7). The deeper the love, the deeper the hate. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1940.Google Scholar
  19. Kanouse, D. (1984). Explaining negativity biases in evaluation and choice behavior: Theory and research. Advances in Consumer Research, 11(1), 703–708.Google Scholar
  20. Kanouse, D., & Hanson, L. (1972). Negativity in evaluations. In E. Jones, E. Kanouse, S. Valins, H. Kelley, E. Nisbett, & B. Weiner (Eds.), Attribution: Perceiving the causes of behavior. Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press.Google Scholar
  21. Kemper, T. D. (1987). How many emotions are there? Wedding the social and the autonomic components. American Journal of Sociology, 93(2), 263–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kling, K. C., Hyde, J. S., Showers, C. J., & Buswell, B. N. (1999). Gender differences in self-esteem: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 470–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. McKellar, P. (1950). Provocation to anger and development of attitudes of hostility. British Journal of Psychology, 40, 104–114.Google Scholar
  24. Nietzsche, F. (1990). Beyond good and evil (R. J. Hollingdale, Trans.). London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  25. Nietzsche, F. (2003). The genealogy of morals (Dover Thrift Editions). Mineola and New York: Dover Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
  26. Opotow, S. (2005). Hate, conflict, and moral exclusion. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), The psychology of hate (pp. 121–153). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Plutchick, R. (1991). The emotions (Revised Edition), Lanham and Maryland: University Press of America, Inc.Google Scholar
  28. Shaver, P., Schwartz, J., Kirson, D., & O’Connor, C. (1987). Emotion knowledge: Further exploration of a prototype approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(6), 1061–1806.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Solomon, R. (1977). The Passions. New York: Anchor Books.Google Scholar
  30. Sprott, J. C. (2004). Dynamical models of love. Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, 8(3), 303–314.Google Scholar
  31. Staub, E. (1989). The roots of evil: The origins of genocide and other group violence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Staub, E. (1990). Moral exclusion, personal goal theory, and extreme destructiveness. Journal of Social Issues, 46(1), 47–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sternberg, J. R. (2003). A duplex theory of hate: Development and application to terrorism, massacres, and genocide. Review of General Psychology, 7(3), 299–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sternberg, J. R. (2005). Understanding and combating hate. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), The psychology of hate (pp. 37–49). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Storm, C., & Storm, T. (1987). A taxonomic study of the vocabulary of emotions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53(4), 805–816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sullivan, A. (1999, September). What’s so bad about hate, NY Times Magazine, 26, 50–57, 88, 104, 112–113.Google Scholar
  37. Tajfel, H. (1978). Social categorization, social identity and social comparison. In H. Tajfel (Ed.), Differentiation between social groups (pp. 61–76). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  38. Tajfel, H. (1982). Social psychology of intergroup relations. Annual Review of Psychology, 33, 1–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tajfel, H., Flamont, C., Billig, M. Y., & Bundy, R. P. (1971). Societal categorization and intergroup behavior. European Journal of Social Psychology, 1, 149–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Toch, H. (1993). Violent men: An inquiry into the psychology of violence. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of WashingtonTacomaUSA

Personalised recommendations