Advertisement

Female Entrepreneurship and Management in the Immigrant Reception Sector in Italy

  • Paola Paoloni
  • Marco ValeriEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Proceedings in Business and Economics book series (SPBE)

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to verify whether relational capital allows increasing the information inherent in the process of the network of female cooperative micro-enterprises. The focus on Italy is justified on the grounds that the phenomenon of immigration in Italy has become a central theme in the political and social debate. Based on the literature on the subject and on previous research results it is useful to ask the following research question: does the network affect the competitive advantage of female micro-enterprises operating in the field of immigrant reception in Italy? To gather data for our study, a qualitative research methodology was adopted using a case study approach based on examining in depth current events of real life (Yin in Case study research: design and methods. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, 2009). The survey has involved two enterprises, Formland and Altea, which are two out of the ten business realities committed to immigrants’ reception within the area of the Italian region Lazio. The first one is a female-run business, which includes eight reception centers scattered throughout the territory (four in the province of Frosinone, two in the province of Caserta and two in that of Naples), the second one is an entirely female-owned enterprise and counts around forty reception structures. The structure of the interviews reflects the need to examine the personal features of female managers, the organizational aspects and the style of leadership, the task environment in which the enterprise works and the main possible benefits, or obstacles, they might obtain, or face. The paper develops the CAOS model of micro-entrepreneurship, examining the personal characteristics of a female entrepreneur (C), the environment in which a micro-enterprise operates (A), organizational and managerial aspects (O) and the motivations for starting a new business (S). Using this model, the authors are able to correlate these factors, classify different types of connections, and to identify the kind of existing relationships. The analysis shows a predominant use of networks characterized by informal and permanent relationships, supporting the need to reconcile work and family and to involve relatives and friends in the network. This emphasizes the lack of strategy in the female-run micro-enterprises. Given that female management is regarded as central to the development and welfare of economies, deepening the knowledge of how women managers lead business can contribute to improving the effectiveness of policies aimed at promoting the participation of female managers in the economy.

Keywords

Relational capital Entrepreneurship Organizational behavior Network Women in management Competitive advantage 

References

  1. Adler, P. S. (2001). Fiducia riflessiva ed economia della conoscenza. Sviluppo e organizzazione, 188.Google Scholar
  2. Aldric, H. (1989). Networking among women entrepreneurs. In O. Hagan, C. Rivchun, & D. Sexton (Eds.), Women-owned businesses. New York: Preger.Google Scholar
  3. Ballatore, R. M., Grompone, A., Lucci, L., Passiglia, P., & Sechi, A. (2017). I rifugiati e i richiedenti asilo in Italia, nel confronto europeo. Banca d’Italia, n. 377.Google Scholar
  4. Bourdieu, P. (1986). Forms of capital. In J. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of theory of research for the sociology of education. Westport: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  5. Carsrud, A. L., Caglio, C. M., & Olm, K. W. (1986). Entrepreneurs, mentors, networks, and successful new venture development: An exploratory study. In R. Ronstadt, J. A. Hornaday, R. Peterson, & K. H. Vesper (Eds.), Frontiers of entrepreneurship research. Wellesley MA: Babson College.Google Scholar
  6. Coleman, J. (1998), Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94, S95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Corsi, K. (2003). Il controllo organizzativo nella prospettiva transnazionale. Milano: Giuffrè.Google Scholar
  8. Das, T. K. (1989). Organizational control: An evolutionary perspective. Journal of Management Studies, 26(5).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Eisenhardt, K., & Schoonhoven, C. (1996). Resource-based view of strategic alliance formation: Strategic and social effects in entrepreneurial firms. Organization Science, 7(2), 136–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. European Border and Coast Guard Agency—Frontex. (2017). Frontex risk analysis network quarterly report.Google Scholar
  11. Gatti, M. (1999). Fiducia e generazione di conoscenza nelle relazioni tra imprese: il caso ST. Sinergie, 50.Google Scholar
  12. Gillian, C. (1982). In a different voice. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Glaeser, E. L., Laibson, D., Scheinkman, J. A., & Soutter, C. L. (2000). Measuring trust. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 115, 811.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Grandori, A., & Giordani, L. G. (2011). Organizing entrepreneurship. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Grandori, A., & Soda, G. (1995). Inter-firm networks: Antecedents, mechanisms and forms. Organization Studies, 16(2), 183–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gulati, R. (1995). Does familiarity breed trust? The implication of repeated ties for contractual choice in alliances. Academy of Management Journal, 38, 85.Google Scholar
  17. Gulati, R. (1998). Alliances and networks. Strategic Management Journal, 19, 293–317. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3094067.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hoang, H., & Antonic, B. (2003). Network-based research in entrepreneurship: A critical review. Journal of Business Venturing, 18, 165–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Larson, J. A., & Starr, A. (1993). Network model of organization formation. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 17, 5–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lerner, M., & Almor, T. (2002). Relationship among strategic capabilities and the performance of women-owned small venture. Journal of Business Management, 40, 109–125.Google Scholar
  21. Lipparini, A., & Lorenzoni, G. (2000). Imprenditori e imprese. Idee, piani e processi. Il Mulino: Bologna.Google Scholar
  22. Mazzarol, T., Volery, T., Doss, N., & Thein, V. (1999). Factor influencing small business start-up. A comparison with previous research. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 5, 48–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nooteboom, A. (2002). A balanced theory of sourcing, collaboration and networks. Rotterdam: Mimeo, Erasmus University.Google Scholar
  24. Ozgen, E., & Baron, R. (2007). Social sources of information in opportunity recognition: Effect of mentor, industry network, and professional forums. Journal of Business Venturing, 22, 174–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Paldam, M. (2000). Social capital: One or many? Definition and measurement. Journal of economic surveys, 14, 629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Paoloni, M., Valeri, M., & Paoloni, P. (2017a). Development perspectives of relational capital in women-led firms. International Journal of Business and Management, 12(9), 66–76.Google Scholar
  27. Paoloni, M., Valeri, M., & Paoloni, P. (2017b). Immigrant women’s entrepreneurship: Is there a development model in Italy? African Journal of Business Management, 11(15), 357–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Paoloni, P. (2011). La dimensione relazionale delle imprese femminili. Milano: Franco Angeli.Google Scholar
  29. Paoloni, P., & Valeri, M. (2017). An overview on immigrant women’s entrepreneurship in the italian context. In P. Paoloni & R. Lombardi (Eds.), Gender issues in business and economics. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  30. Porter, A. (1998). Social capital, its origins and its applications in modern sociology. Annual Review of Sociology, 5.Google Scholar
  31. Putnam, R. (2000). Bowling alone. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  32. Rodriguez, M. J., & Santos, F. J. (2009). Women nascent entrepreneurs and social capital in the process of firm creation. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 5(1), 45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sako, M. (1992). Prices, quality and trust; Inter-firm relations in Britain and Japan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Shapero, A., & Sokol, L. (1982). Social dimensions of entrepreneurship. In D. L. Sextonk & H. Vesper (Eds.), Encyclopedia of entreprenership. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  35. Smeltzer, L. R., & Fann, G. L. (1989). Gender differences in external network of small business owner-manager. Journal of Small Business Management, 27, 25–32.Google Scholar
  36. Tarrow, S. (2000). Mad caws and social activists: Contentious politics in the trilateral democracies. In S. Pharr & R. Putman (Eds.), Disaffected democracies. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Williamson, O. (1993). Calculativeness, trust and economic organisation. Journal of law and economics, 36, 453.Google Scholar
  38. Yin, R. K. (2009). Case study research: Design and methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of EconomicsNiccolò Cusano UniversityRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations