• Gustavo Mantovani RuggieroEmail author


Microsurgery Training Using Earthworms: The training protocol on robotic microsurgery does not differ from traditional microsurgery training cards, except for the use of the robot. Thus, the surgeon must begin with exercises regarding the use of the telemanipulator device, and then traditional artificial or biological models for microsurgery practice are used under robotic manipulation. This chapter describes an overview of all the training processes with special attention on the innovative biological model using earthworm pieces.


Haptic Feedback Optic Feedback Haptic Sensation Microsurgical Procedure Microvascular Clamp 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag France 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hand Surger Group, São Paulo Hand CenterBeneficiencia Portuguesa de Sao Paulo HospitalSao PaoloBrazil

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