• Sijo Joseph ParekattiEmail author
  • Michael Moran


From Isaac Asimov’s first use of the word ‘robotics’ in 1942, the use of tele-‘robotic’ devices as a liaison between man and machine never ceases to intrigue us. We have always strived to utilize more complex tools to assist in solving daily challenges. This growth has also occurred in the field of microsurgery. From the introduction of the use of the operating microscope in the 1970s, microsurgeons continue to strive to improve techniques and tools to perform complex microsurgical procedures. The use of robotic assistance in microsurgery intuitively makes sense as a continued journey in this direction. However, the path is still being defined, and there is still a need for further development. This chapter covers the history of robotics, the evolution of instrumentation and our current state of the art tools and platforms for robotic-assisted microsurgery.


Robotic System Spermatic Cord Defense Advance Research Project Agency Defense Advance Research Project Agency Testicular Artery 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Cocuzza M, Pagani R, Coelho R et al (2010) The systematic use of intraoperative vascular ­doppler ultrasound during microsurgical subinguinal varicocelectomy improves precise identification and preservation of testicular blood supply. Fertil Steril 93:2396–2399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fisher SS, Humphries J, Robinett W (1986) Virtual environmental display system. In: Proceedings of the workshop on interactive 3-D graphics, Chapel Hill, 1986, vol. 1, pp 1–12Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Green PS, Satava RM (1991) Telepresence: dexterous procedures in a virtual operating field. Surg Endosc 57:192AGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Himpens JG, Cardiere GB (1998) Telesurgical laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Surg Endosc 12:1091PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Moran ME (2006) Technology: law of accelerating returns. J Endourol 20:375–382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Moran ME (2006) The da vinci robot. J Endourol 20:986–990PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    RRG Robotic Research Group (2009) History of robotics. Available from: (Accessed on 10 January 2011)
  8. 8.
    Satava RM (2010) History of robotic surgery. The early chronicles: a personal historical ­perspective. Available from: (Accessed on 10 January 2011)
  9. 9.
    Wang Y (1996) Robotically enhanced surgery: from concept to development. Surg Endosc 8:63–66Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag France 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Urology DepartmentWinter Haven Hospital, University of FloridaWinter HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations