Product Modelling in Support of Rapid OKP Development: a Review

  • Shane (S.Q.) Xie
  • Yiliu Tu


For OKP companies, how to better manage and record previous product development (PD) knowledge has become a core issue to address in order to improve the PD process, cut down development cost and reduce lead time. In recent years, considerable effort has been placed on developing new enabling technologies for OKP companies to achieve high quality and productivity, and to quickly respond to the changing market to meet customer requirements. Product modelling is a pivotal activity in the PD process. Well-defined product models organise product data, production information and knowledge to satisfy the requirements of rapid changes in the PD environment. In this chapter, a comprehensive review is carried out of recent developments in product modelling technology. Four types of product modelling methodologies are discussed in detail. Two object-oriented product modelling methods, including STEP-based product modelling and UML-based product modelling are reviewed and compared. The research gaps and issues are identified. A generic product modelling framework is proposed to implement product modelling into the current integrated manufacturing environment. Future research trends in product modelling are also discussed.


Unify Modelling Language Product Modelling Product Family Product Development Process Product Data Management 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Allen, L. E., 1996, OO management, Application Development Trends, 3, 50–55.Google Scholar
  2. Amaitik, S. M. and Kiliç, S. E., 2007, An intelligent process planning system for prismatic parts using STEP features, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 31(9–10), 978–993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arnold, J. A., Teicholz, P. and Kunz, J., 1999, Approach for the interoperation of web-distributed applications with a design model, Automation in Construction, 8, 291–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ayag, Z., 2005, An integrated approach to evaluating conceptual design alternatives in a new PD environment, International Journal of Production Research, 43, 687–713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baum, S. J. and Ramakrishnan, R., 1997, Applying 3D product modelling technology to shipbuilding, Marine Technology, 34, 56–65.Google Scholar
  6. Baysal, M. M., Roy, U., Sudarsan, R., Sriram, R. D. and Lyons, K. W., 2004, The open assembly model for the exchange of assembly and tolerance information: overview and example, Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference 2004: Volume 4: 24th Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, 7, 59–770.Google Scholar
  7. Brissaud, D. and Tichkiewitch, S., 2001, Product models for life-cycle, CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, 50, 105–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brooks, S. L. and Greenway, R. B., 1995, Using STEP to integrate design features with manufacturing features, ASME Database Symposium Computers in Engineering, Boston, MA, USA, Sept. 17–20, 579–586.Google Scholar
  9. Brunetti, G. and Golob, B., 2000, Feature-based approach towards an integrated product modelling conceptual design information, Computer-Aided Design, 32, 877–887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Canciglieri, O. J. and Young, R. I. M., 2003, Information sharing in multi view point injection moulding design and manufacturing, International Journal of Production Research, 41, 1565–1586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chang, X. Q. and Ning, R. X., 2001, Assemlby planning and evaluation oriented assembly feature modelling, Jisuanji Jicheng Zhizao Xitong/Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems, 7, 35–38 (in Chinese).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen, L. and Jin, G. D., 2005, Product modelling for multidisciplinary collaborative design, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 30, 589–600.Google Scholar
  13. Chen, Y. M. and Wei, C. L., 1997, Computer-aided feature-based design for net shape manufacturing, Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems, 10, 147–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chen, Y. M., 1999, Integrating knowledge, data and geometry: a computer-aided concurrent engineering infrastructure, Integrated Computer-Aided Engineering, 6, 189–212.Google Scholar
  15. Chep, A. and Tricarico, L., 1999, Object-oriented analysis and design of a manufacturing feature representation, International Journal of Production Research, 37, 2349–2376.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chin, K. S., Zhao, Y. and Mok, C. K., 2002, STEP-based multiview integrated product modelling for concurrent engineering, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 20, 896–906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Du, X. H., Jiao, J. X. and Tseng, M. M., 2002, Graph grammar based product family modelling, Concurrent Engineering Research and Applications, 10, 113–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fenves, S. J., 2002, A core product model for representing design information, National Institute of Standards and Technology, NISTIR 6736, Gaithersburg, MD 20899.Google Scholar
  19. Gao, Z. F., Qin, X. J. and Ou, Z. Y., 2000, Intelligent feature-based product model framework and its implementation, Dalian Ligong Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Dalian University of Technology, 40, 193–197 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  20. Gielingh, W. F., de Bruijn, W. J., Bohms, H. M., Suhm, A., Cremer, R. and Bassan, J., 1991, Open architecture for information Integration of CIMModules, Proceedings of the International IFIPTC5 Conference on Computer Applications in Production and Engineering: Integration Aspects.Google Scholar
  21. Gu, P. H. and Chan, K., 1995, Product modelling using STEP, Computer-Aided Design, 27, 163–179.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gu, P. H. and Zhang, Y., 1994, OOPPS: an object-oriented process planning system, Computers & Industrial Engineering, 26, 709–731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hoehn, B. R., Steingroever, K. and Jaros, M., 2003, Product model for gear units, Proceedings of the ASMR Design Engineering Technical Conference, 4(A), 385–395.Google Scholar
  24. Horvath, L., Rudas, I. J. and Couto, C., 2000, Human intent models in integrated product modelling, 26th Annual Conference of the IEEE Electronics Society IECON 2000, Industrial Electronic Conference (IECON) Proceedings, Nagoya, Oct. 22–28, 2, 1274–1279.Google Scholar
  25. Hur, J. H., Lee, K. W., Zhu, H. and Kim, J. W., 2002, Hybrid rapid prototyping system using machining and deposition, Computer-Aided Design, 34, 741–754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hvam, L., 1999, A procedure for building product models, Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 15, 77–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. ISO, 1994a, Industrial Automation Systems and Integration: Product Data Representation and Exchange: Part 1: Overview and Fundamental Principles, First Edition, Reference Number: ISO 10303-1:1994(E), ISO, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  28. ISO, 1994b, Industrial Automation Systems and Integration: Product Data Representation and Exchange: Part 11: Description Methods: The EXPRESS Language Reference Manual, First Edition, Reference Number: ISO 10303-11:1994(E), ISO, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  29. ISO, 1994c, Industrial Automation Systems and Integration: Product Data Representation and Exchange: Part 203: Application Protocol: Configuration Controlled 3D Designs of Mechanical Parts and Assemblies, First Edition, Reference Number: ISO 10303-203:1994(E), ISO, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  30. ISO, 2001a, Industrial Automation Systems and Integration: Product Data Representation and Exchange: Part 214: Application Protocol: Core Data for Automotive Mechanical Design Processes, First Edition, Reference Number: ISO 10303-214:2001(E), ISO, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  31. ISO, 2001b, Industrial Automation Systems and Integration: Product Data Representation and Exchange: Part 224: Application Protocol: Mechanical Product Definition for Process Planning Using Machining Features, Reference Number: ISO 10303-224:2001(E), ISO, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  32. Jiao, J. X. and Tseng, M. M., 1999, An information modelling framework for product families to support mass customization manufacturing. CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, 48, 93–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jordon, L. A., 1994, A study in the exchange of product data using STEP and EXPRESS, Master thesis, Queen’s University of Belfast.Google Scholar
  34. Juri, A. H., Saia, A. and Penington, A. D., 1990, Reasoning about machining operations using feature-based models, International Journal of Production Research, 28, 153–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kodiyalam, S., Finnigan, P. M. and Kumar, V., 1990, Hybrid CSG/B-rep approach to three-dimensional shape optimization, American Society of Mechanical Engineers Paper.Google Scholar
  36. Krause, F. L., Kimura, F., Kjellberg, T., Lu, S. C. Y., Van derWolf, A. C. H., Ating, L., ElMaraghy, H. A., Eversheim, W., Iwata, K., Suh, N. P., Tipnis, V. A. and Weck, M., 1993, Product modelling, CIRP Annals: Manufacturing Technology, 42, 695–706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lee, J. Y. and Kim, K., 1999, Generating alternative interpretations of machining features. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 15, 34–48.Google Scholar
  38. Lee, K. Y., Lee, W. J. and Roh, M. I., 2004, Development of a semantic product modelling system for initial hull structure in shipbuilding, Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 20, 211–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lee, Y. T., 1997, Data sharing implementation based on the information model for apparel pattern making. Report of NISTIR 6139, Gaithersburg: National Institute of Standards and Technology, January.Google Scholar
  40. Li, H. Y. and Liu X., 2006, Product modelling during its whole lifecycle for collaborative design in PLM, Proceedings of the 6th World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation, J Dalian, China, 6890–6894.Google Scholar
  41. Liang, J., Shah, J. J., D’Souza, R., Urban, S. D., Ayyaswamy, K., Harter, E. and Bluhm, T., 1999, Synthesis of consolidated data schema for engineering analysis from multiple STEP application protocols, Computer-Aided Design, 31, 429–447.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lin, L. F., Gao, P., Cai, M., Lou, Y. C., Wu, J. and Dong, J. X., 2005, Product modelling for integrated PD, Zhejiang Daxue Xuebao (Gongxue Ban)/Journal of Zhejiang University (Engineering Science), 39, 1168–1173 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  43. Linthicam, D. S., 1995, The object revolution, Database Management Systems, 8, 46–52.Google Scholar
  44. Liu, N. R., Li, S. P. and Dong, J. X., 2000, Research of a STEP-based tool for the integration of CAD/CAPP, Jisuanji Fuzhu Sheji Yu Tuxingxue Xuebao/Journal of Computer Aided Design and Computer Graphics, 12, 286–290 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  45. Lou, Z., Jiang, H. and Ruan, X., 2004, Development of an integrated knowledge-based system for mold-base design, Journal of Material Processing Technology, 150, 194–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Meng, M. C., Yang, L. and Bai, L. K., 1997, Feature modelling system based on STEP, Jisuanji Jicheng Zhizao Xitong/Computer Integrated Manufaturing System, CIMS, 3, 34–38.Google Scholar
  47. Nayak, R. U., Chen, W. and Simpson, T. W. 2002, A variation-based method for product family design, Engineering Optimization, 34, 65–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Oetter, R., Barry, C. D., Decan, L. A. and Sorensen, P. F., 2004, Integrating manufacturing and life cycle information into the product model, Journal of Ship Production, 20, 221–231.Google Scholar
  49. Pilz, M. and Kamel, H. A., 1989, Creation and boundary evaluation of CSG-models, Engineering with Computers (New York), 5, 105–118.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pratt, M. J., 1988, Synthesis of an optimal approach to form feature modelling, Proceedings of ASME Conference Computers in Engineering (CIE), San Francisco, CA, August, 263–274.Google Scholar
  51. Rachuri, S., Han, Y. H., Feng, S. C., Roy, U., Wang, F. J., Sriram, R. D. and Lyons, K. W., 2003, Object-oriented representation of electromechanical assemblies using UML, National Institute of Standards and Technology, NISTIR 7057, Gaithersburg, MD 20899.Google Scholar
  52. Roy, U. and Kodkani, S. S., 1999, Product modelling within the framework of the World Wide Web, IIE Transactions (Institute of Industrial Engineers), 31, 667–677.Google Scholar
  53. Rumbaugh, J., Blaha, M., Premerlani, W., Eddy, F. and Lorensen, W., 1991, Object-oreinted modelling and design, Prentice Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ.Google Scholar
  54. Salomons, O. W., Van Houten, F. J. A. M. and Kals, H. J. J., 1993, Review or research in feature-based design, Journal of Manufacturing System, 12, 113–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Salustri, F. A., 1996, A formal theory for knowledge-based product model representation, Knowledge-Intensive CAD II: Proc. IFIP WG5.2 Workshop, eds Finger, S., Tomiyama, T., and Matyla, M., Chapman & Hall, London, 59–78.Google Scholar
  56. Sanchez, N. G. and Choobineh, J. 1997, Achieving reuse with OO technology, Information Systems Management, 14, 48–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Shapiro, V. and Vossler, D. L., 1991, Construction and optimization of CSG representations, Computer Aided Design, 23, 4–20.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  58. Schench, D. A., 1994, Information modelling: the EXPRESS way, Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York.Google Scholar
  59. Shaharoun, A. M., Razak, J. Ab. and Alam, M. R., 1998, A STEP-based geometrical representation as part of product data model of a plastics part, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 76, 115–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sharma, R. and Gao, J.X., 2002, Implementation of STEP 224 in an automatic manufacturing planning system, Proceedings of the Institute of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacturing 216, 1277–1289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Shapiro, V. and Vossler, D. L., 1993, Separation for boundary to CSG conversion, ACM Transactions on Graphics, 12, 35–55.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Smith, S. S. F., Smith, G. C. and Liao, X. Y., 2001, Automatic stable assembly sequence generation and evaluation, Journal of Manufacturing Systems, 20, 225–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Song, Y. Y., Chu, X. P. and Cai, F. Z., 1999, Real-time concurrent product and design system for mechanical parts, High Technology Letters, 5, 74–80.Google Scholar
  64. Sormaz, D. N. and Khoshnevis, B., 1997, Process planning knowledge representation using an object-oriented data model, International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing, 10, 92–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Tang, D., Zheng, L., Li, Z. and Chin, K. S., 2001, STEP-based product modelling for concurrent stamped part and die development, Computers in Industry, 46, 75–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Tay, F. E. H. and Gu, J. X., 2002, Product modelling for conceptual design support. Computers in Industry, 48, 143–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Tu, Y. L., Xie, S. Q. and Fung, R. Y. K., 2006, PD cost estimation in mass customization, IEEE Trans on Engineering Management, 53, 256–263.Google Scholar
  68. Usher, J. M., 1996, A STEP-based object-oriented product model for process planning, Computers and Industrial Engineering, 31, 185–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Van Holland, W. and Bronsvoort, W. F., 2000, Assembly feature in modelling and planning, Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 16, 277–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wang, L. H., Wong, B., Shen, W. M. and Lang, S., 2001, A web-based collaborative workspace using Java 3D, Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work in Design, London, Ontario, Canada, July 12–14, 77–82.Google Scholar
  71. Weber, C., Werner, H. and Deubel, T., 2003, A different view on product data management/product life-cycle management and its future potentials, Journal of Engineering Design, 14, 447–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Wingard, L., 1991, Introducing form features in product models: a step towards CADCAM with engineering terminology, Licentiate thesis, Dept. of Manufacturing Systems, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.Google Scholar
  73. Xie, S. Q., Tu, Y. L., Aitchison, D., Dunlop, R. and Zhou, Z. D., 2001, A WWW based PD platform for intelligent and concurrent sheet metal products design and manufacturing, International Journal of Production Research , 39, 3829–3852.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Xie, S. Q., Tu, Y. L., Fung, R.Y. K. and Zhou, Z. D. 2003, Rapid one-of-a-kind PD via the Internet: A literature review of the state-of-the-art and a proposed platform, International Journal of Production Research, 41, 4257–4298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Xue, D. and Dong, Z., 1994, Coding and clustering of design and manufacturing features for concurrent design, Computers in Industry, 34, 139–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Yang, J. G. and Li, B. Z., 1992, Research on transformation of workpiece information in CAD/CAPP, Zhongguo Fangzhi Daxue Xuebao/Journal of China Textile University, 18, 1–7 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  77. Yang, X. H., Ou, Z. Y., Lu, P. D. and Han, F., 2002, Assembly sequence planning and assembling simulation of stamping die tools, Proceedings of SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering, 4756, 274–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Zha, X. F. and Du, H., 2002, A PDES/STEP-based model and system for concurrent integrated design and assembly planning, Computer-Aided Design, 34, 1087–1110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Zha, X. F., 2006, Integration of the STEP-based assembly model and XML schema with the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) for muti-agent based assembly evaluation, Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, 17, 527–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Zhang, J. S., Wnag, Q. F, Wan, L. and Zhong, Y. F., 2005, Configuration-oriented product modelling and knowledge management for made-to-order manufacturing enterprises, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 25, 41–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Zhang, S., Hou, X. and Wang, Z., 1995, STEP application protocol interoperability for CAD/CAPP integration, ASME Database Symposium, Computers in Engineering, Boston, MA, USA., Sept. 17–20, 687–690.Google Scholar
  82. Zhang, W. Y., Tor, S. Y. and Britton, G. A., 2006, Managing modularity in product family design with functional modelling, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 30, 579–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shane (S.Q.) Xie
    • 1
  • Yiliu Tu
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing EngineeringUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada

Personalised recommendations