Advertisement

Introduction

Chapter
Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)

Abstract

Global energy sources are classified into two groups fossil and renewable. Primary energy sources can be divided into non-renewables and renewables. Non-renewable energy resources include coal, petrol, gas, gas hydrate and fissile material, while renewable energy sources are biomass, hydro, geothermal, solar and wind energy.

Methane hydrates are the world’s largest source of fossil fuel. Large fields of methane hydrates are scattered throughout the world’s oceans and are thought to contain about as much energy as all other forms of fossil fuel combined. This unconventional hydrocarbon energy source has remained untapped, however, because traditional sources are still plentiful and less expensive to develop. Nevertheless, scientists have recently been taking a closer look at hydrates, and not only as a possible energy source. A widely quoted US Geological Survey estimate predicts that there is twice as much organic carbon in gas hydrate than in all recoverable and unrecoverable conventional fossil fuel resources, including natural gas, coal and oil.

The renewable energy refers to primary energies that are continuously generated by the energy sources solar energy, geothermal energy and tidal energy. The energy produced within the sun is responsible for a multitude of other renewable energies (such as wind and hydropower) as well as renewable energy carries (such as solid or liquid biofuels). Main renewable energy sources are biomass, hydropower, geothermal, solar, wind and marine energies. The renewables are the primary, domestic and clean or inexhaustible energy resources.

Keywords

Municipal Solid Waste Natural Bitumen International Energy Agency Tropsch Synthesis Methane Hydrate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bender M (1999) Economic feasibility review for community-scale farmer cooperatives for biodiesel. Bioresour Technol 70:81–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bushnell DJ, Haluzok C, Dadkhah-Nikoo A (1989) Biomass fuel characterization testing and evaluating the combustion characteristics of selected biomass fuels. Bonneville Power Administration, CorvallisGoogle Scholar
  3. Byrd AJ, Pant KK, Gupta RB (2007) Hydrogen production from glucose using Ru/Al2O3 catalyst in supercritical water. Ind Eng Chem Res 46:3574–3579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cecen F, Erdincler A, Kilic E (2003) Effect of powdered activated carbon addition on sludge dewaterability and substrate removal in landfill leachate treatment. Adv Environ Res 7:707–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. COSO (2007) Report to the energy watch group. EWG series no 3/2007. http://www.energywatchgroup.org/fileadmin/global/pdf/EWG_Oilreport_10-2007.pdfGoogle Scholar
  6. Demirbas A (1991) Fatty and resin acids recovered from spruce wood by supercritical acetone extraction. Holzforschung 45:337–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Demirbas A (2000) Mechanisms of liquefaction and pyrolysis reactions of biomass. Energy Convers Manage 41:633–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Demirbas A (2001) Biomass resource facilities and biomass conversion processing for fuel and chemicals. Energy Convers Manage 42:1357–1378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Demirbas A (2004) Combustion characteristics of different biomass fuels. Prog Energ Combus Sci 30:219–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Demirbas A (2006) Energy priorities and new energy strategies. Energy Educ Sci Technol 16:53–109Google Scholar
  11. Demirbas A (2007) Utilization of coals as sources of chemicals. Energy Sources 29:677–684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Demirbas A (2008) Biodiesel: a realistic fuel alternative for diesel engines. Springer, LondonGoogle Scholar
  13. Demirbas A (2009) Biofuels: securing the planet’s future energy needs. Springer, LondonGoogle Scholar
  14. Dorf RC (1977) Energy resources and policy. Addison-Wesley, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
  15. Dry ME (1999) Fischer–Tropsch reactions and the environment. Appl Catal A Gen 189:185–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Durgun O, Sahin Z (2007) Theoretical investigations of effects of light fuel fumigation on diesel engine performance and emissions. Energy Convers Manage 48:1952–1964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. EBB (2009) European biodiesel statistics. European Biodiesel Board, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  18. European Wind Energy Association (2005) Large scale integration of wind energy in the European power supply: analysis, issues and recommendationsGoogle Scholar
  19. Fridleifsson IB (2001) Geothermal energy for the benefit of the people. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 5:299–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Garg HP, Datta G (1998) Global status on renewable energy. In: Solar energy heating and cooling methods in building, international workshop: Iran University of Science and Technology, 19–20 MayGoogle Scholar
  21. Glasser WG, Sarkanen S (eds) (1989) Lignin: properties and materials. American Chemical Society, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  22. Hacisalihoglu B, Demirbas AH, Hacisalihoglu S (2008) Hydrogen from gas hydrate and hydrogen sulfide in the Black Sea. Energy Educ Sci Technol 21:109–115Google Scholar
  23. Haas MJ, McAloon AJ, Yee WJ, Foglia TA (2006) A process model to estimate biodiesel production costs. Bioresour Technol 97:671–678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Huber GW, Chheda JN, Barrett JA (2005) Dumesic, production of liquid alkanes by aqueousphase processing of biomass-derived carbohydrates. Science 308:1446–1450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hussy I, Hawkes FR, Dinsdale R, Hawkes DL (2005) Continuous fermentative hydrogen production from sucrose and sugarbeet. Int J Hydrogen Energy 30:471–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. IEA (2006) Reference scenario projections. IEA, ParisGoogle Scholar
  27. IEA (2007) Key world energy statistics. IEA, Paris. http://www.iea.org/Textbase/nppdf/free/2007/key_stats_2007.pdfGoogle Scholar
  28. Kalogirou SA (2004) Solar thermal collectors and applications. Prog Energy Combust Sci 30:231–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kargi F, Pamukoglu MY (2004) Adsorbent supplemented biological treatment of pre-treated landfill leachate by fed-batch operation. Bioresour Technol 94:285–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kayabali K (1997) Engineering aspects of a novel landfill liner material: bentonite-amended natural zeolite. Eng Geol 46:105–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kutz M (ed) (2007) Environmentally conscious alternative energy production. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  32. Lee S-Y, Holder GD (2001) Methane hydrates potential as a future energy source. Fuel Proc Technol 71:181–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Metzger JO (2006) Production of liquid hydrocarbons from biomass. Angew Chem Int Ed 45:696–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Molina Grima E, Acién Fernández FG, García Camacho F, Chisti Y (1999) Photobioreactors: light regime, mass transfer, and scaleup. J Biotechnol 70:231–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pokharel S (2003) Promotional issues on alternative energy technologies in Nepal. Energy Policy 31:307–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ragland KW, Aerts DJ, Baker AJ (1991) Properties of wood for combustion analysis. Bioresour Technol 37:161–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. RFA (2009) Ethanol industry statistics, Renewable Fuels Association, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  38. Sarkanen KV, Ludwig CH (eds) (1971) Lignins: occurrence, formation, structure and reactions. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  39. Schobert HH, Song C (2002) Chemicals and materials from coal in the 21st century. Fuel 81:15–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Schulz H (1999) Short history and present trends of FT synthesis. Appl Catal A Gen 186:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Spath PL, Mann MK (2000) Life cycle assessment of hydrogen production via natural gas steam reforming. TP-570-27637. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, GoldenGoogle Scholar
  42. Theander O (1985) In: Overand RP, Mile TA, Mudge LK (eds) Fundamentals of thermochemical biomass conversion. Elsevier, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  43. Tillman DA (2000) Biomass cofiring: the technology, the experience, the combustion consequences. Biomass Bioenergy 19:365–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. UN (2006) International conference for renewable energies, Bonn, 10 June 2006Google Scholar
  45. UNDP (2000) World energy assessment 2000–energy and the challenge of sustainability. United Nations Development Programme, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  46. Zhang Y, Dub MA, McLean DD, Kates M (2003) Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil: 2. Economic assessment and sensitivity analysis. Bioresour Technol 90:229–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2010

Personalised recommendations