Concluding Remarks

  • Paul HjemdahlEmail author
  • Annika Rosengren
  • Andrew Steptoe


This book illustrates the importance of stress and psychosocial factors in the etiology, development, and management of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, especially coronary heart disease (CHD). Studies in animals show that stress can cause atherosclerotic disease and have provided some plausible mechanisms. Experimental studies in humans have demonstrated that acute stress can engage neuro-humoral and other mechanisms designed to provide survival benefits but which, when engaged too intensively or too frequently, may initiate disease processes and cause cardiovascular complications in susceptible individuals.


Acute stress Cardiovascular disease Cardiovascular outcomes Coronary heart disease (CHD) Psychosocial factors Stress 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul Hjemdahl
    • 1
    Email author
  • Annika Rosengren
    • 2
  • Andrew Steptoe
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Medicine, Solna, Clinical Pharmacology UnitKarolinska Institute, Karolinska University Hospital/SolnaStockholmSweden
  2. 2.Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska AcademySahlgrenska University HospitalGothenburgSweden
  3. 3.Department of Epidemiology and Public HealthUniversity College LondonLondonUK

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