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Introduction to Cardiovascular Disease, Stress and Adaptation

  • Andrew SteptoeEmail author
  • Annika Rosengren
  • Paul Hjemdahl
Chapter

Abstract

Psychological stress is increasingly being recognised as a modifiable cardiovascular risk factor, and is being vigorously investigated in animal studies, human experimental and clinical research, and in population-level epidemiological studies.1 There is a growing trend for the incorporation of stress management into cardiac rehabilitation programmes and into preventive cardiology. However, stress is multifaceted and often misunderstood, and requires as much scientific scrutiny as other pathological processes relevant to cardiology. There is thus a need for better understanding of stress and its ramifications by cardiologists and other clinicians caring for cardiac patients, and by those involved in primary prevention. The quality of research into stress management is variable, and care is required in identifying effective evidence-based methods.

Keywords

Cardiovascular disease Stress Adaptation Animal research Naturalistic monitoring Ambulatory monitoring 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew Steptoe
    • 1
    Email author
  • Annika Rosengren
    • 2
  • Paul Hjemdahl
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology and Public HealthUniversity College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska AcademySahlgrenska University HospitalGothenburgSweden
  3. 3.Department of Medicine, Solna, Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Karolinska InstituteKarolinska University Hospital/SolnaStockholmSweden

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