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An Overview of Renal Physiology

  • Mitchell H. Rosner
Chapter
Part of the Springer Specialist Surgery Series book series (SPECIALIST)

Abstract

The kidney is responsible for varied and critical functions that maintain homeostasis (this can be seen in Table 7.1, which demonstrates the excretory capacity of the kidney). These functions include maintaining the volume and composition of the extracellular fluid (despite drastic and variable difference in daily intake), removal of toxic waste products (such as the end-products of metabolism such as urea, phosphates, sulfates, and uric acid), the conservation of essential nutrients (glucose, amino acids, electrolytes), regulation of acid–base balance, production of hormones (active 1,25-vitamin D and erythropoietin), regulation of blood pressure, and the excretion of drugs that are metabolized. In order to achieve these functions, the kidney acts as an integrative organ of its constitutive parts: the nephrons. There are approximately 1.2 million nephrons per kidney at birth and it is the function of these units that controls homeostasis.

Keywords

Proximal Tubule Renal Blood Flow Thiazide Diuretic Distal Tubule Plasma Osmolality 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Suggested Reading

  1. Brenner B, ed. The Kidney. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Co; 2007Google Scholar
  2. Giebisch G, Seldin D, eds. Diuretic Agents: Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology. San Diego, CA: Academic Press; 1997Google Scholar
  3. Koeppen BM, Stanton BA, eds. Renal Physiology. 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby Year Book; 1996Google Scholar
  4. Rose BD, Post TW. Clinical Physiology of Acid-Base and Electrolyte Disorders. New York, NY: Mc Graw Hill, Inc.; 2001. ISBN 5Google Scholar
  5. Valtin H, Schafe JA, eds. Renal Function. 3rd ed. Boston, MA: Little, Brown & Company; 1995Google Scholar
  6. Vander AJ et al., eds. Renal Physiology. 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, Inc.; 1995Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer London 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mitchell H. Rosner
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine/NephrologyUniversity of Virginia Health SystemCharlottesvilleUSA

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