Advertisement

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

  • Andrea Tubaro
  • Cosimo de Nunzio
Chapter
Part of the Springer Specialist Surgery Series book series (SPECIALIST)

Abstract

The first description of the prostate gland goes back to Andreas Vesalius in his book entitled Tabulae anatomicae (1538). In 1564, Ambroise Paré, the Renaissance master of French surgery, described obstructive urinary symptoms. Two centuries later, in 1786, John Hunter, the famous British surgeon, related prostatic enlargement to obstructive symptoms, detrusor hypertrophy, and upper urinary tract dilatation. Transurethral instruments to relieve prostatic obstruction were first developed by Jean Civiale in Paris and Enrico Bottini. Eugene Fuller (1858–1930) and Peter Fryer (1852–1921) in Britain and George Goodfellow (1855–1910) in the United States pioneered surgery of BPH. In the twentieth century, new surgical techniques were developed thanks to people like Terence Millin, Hugh H. Young, James Buchanan Brady, George Luys, Maximilian Stern, Joseph McCarthy, and Frederic Foley.1

Keywords

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Lower Urinary Tract Symptom Prostate Volume Acute Urinary Retention Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Patient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Chapple C, Tubaro A. Current Therapy of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. London: Martin Dunitz Ltd.; 2000Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bosch JL, Hop WC, Kirkels WJ, Schroder FH. Natural history of benign prostatic hyperplasia: appropriate case definition and estimation of its prevalence in the community. Urology. 1995;46:34-40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Abrams P, Cardozo L, Fall M, et al. The standardisation of terminology of lower urinary tract function: report from the Standardisation Sub-committee of the International Continence Society. Neurourol Urodyn. 2002;21: 167-178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Logie J, Clifford GM, Farmer RD. Incidence, prevalence and management of lower urinary tract symptoms in men in the UK. BJU Int. 2005;95:557-562PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gades NM, Jacobson DJ, Girman CJ, Roberts RO, Lieber MM, Jacobsen SJ. Prevalence of conditions potentially associated with lower urinary tract symptoms in men. BJU Int. 2005;95:549-553PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Thomas AW, Cannon A, Bartlett E, Ellis-Jones J, Abrams P. The natural history of lower urinary tract dysfunction in men: minimum 10-year urodynamic follow-up of untreated bladder outlet obstruction. BJU Int. 2005; 96:1301-1306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rhodes T, Girman CJ, Jacobsen SJ, Roberts RO, Guess HA, Lieber MM. Longitudinal prostate growth rates during 5 years in randomly selected community men 40–79 years old. J Urol. 1999;161:1174-1179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bosch JL, Hop WC, Niemer AQ, Bangma CH, Kirkels WJ, Schroder FH. Parameters of prostate volume and shape in a community based population of men 55-74 years old. J Urol. 1994;152:1501-1505PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    McConnell JD, Roehrborn CG, Bautista OM, et al. The long-term effect of doxazosin, finasteride, and combination therapy on the clinical progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia. N Engl J Med. 2003;349:2387-2398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Teh GC, Sahabudin RM, Lim TC, et al. Prevalence of symptomatic BPE among Malaysian men aged 50 and above attending screening during prostate health awareness campaign. Med J Malays. 2001;56:186-195Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Abrams P. New words for old: lower urinary tract symptoms for “prostatism”. BMJ. 1994;308:929-930PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Frymann RJ, Abrams PA. Current diagnosis in the management of men with lower urinary tract symptoms. In: Walsh P, Retik A, Vaughn ED, Wein A, eds. Campbell’s Urology Updates, Vol 1. Philadelphia: Saunders, Co.; 2000:1-17Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Abrams P, Chapple C, Khoury S, Roehrborn C, de la Rosette J; International Scientific Committee. Evaluation and treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms in older men. J Urol. 2009 Apr;181(4):1779-87Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Poulsen AL, Schou J, Puggaard L, Torp-Pedersen S, Nordling J. Prostatic enlargement, symptomatology and pressure/flow evaluation: interrelations in patients with symptomatic BPH. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl. 1994;157:67-73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nielsen KK, Nordling J, Hald T. Critical review of the diagnosis of prostatic obstruction. Neurourol Urodyn. 1994;13:201-217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mochtar CA, Kiemeney LA, Laguna MP, et al. Prognostic role of prostate-specific antigen and prostate volume for the risk of invasive therapy in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia initially managed with alpha1-blockers and watchful waiting. Urology. 2005;65:300-305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hong SJ, Ko WJ, Kim SI, Chung BH. Identification of baseline clinical factors which predict medical treatment failure of benign prostatic hyperplasia: an observational cohort study. Eur Urol. 2003;44:94-99; discussion 99-100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    McNeill AS, Rizvi S, Byrne DJ. Prostate size influences the outcome after presenting with acute urinary retention. BJU Int. 2004;94:559-562PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Roehrborn CG, Bartsch G, Kirby R, et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a comparative, international overview. Urology. 2001;50:642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    de la Rosette JJ, Alivizatos G, Madersbacher S, et al. EAU guidelines on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Eur Urol. 2001;40:256-263; discussion 264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kaplan SA. Update on the American urological association guidelines for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Rev Urol. 2006;4(8 suppl):S10-S17Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Boyle P, Robertson C, Lowe F, Roehrborn C. Meta-analysis of clinical trials of permixon in the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. Urology. 2000;55:533-539PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tacklind J, MacDonald R, Rutks I, Wilt TJ. Serenoa repens for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. CD001423; 2009Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Roehrborn CG, Siami P, Barkin J et al.: The Effects of Combination Therapy with Dutasteride and Tamsulosin on Clinical Outcomes in Men with Symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: 4-Year Results from the CombAT Study. Eur Urol. 2010; 57: 123-131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Roehrborn CG, Schwinn DA. Alpha1-adrenergic receptors and their inhibitors in lower urinary tract symptoms and benign prostatic hyperplasia. J Urol. 2004;171: 1029-1035PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Michel MC. Potential role of a1-adrenoceptor subtypes in the aetiology of LUTS. Eur Urol Suppl. 2002;1:5-13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kortmann BB, Floratos DL, Kiemeney LA, Wijkstra H, de la Rosette JJ. Urodynamic effects of alpha-adrenoceptor blockers: a review of clinical trials. Urology. 2003;62:1-9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Andersson KE. The concept of uroselectivity. Eur Urol Suppl. 1998;33:7-11Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kirby RS, Andersen M, Gratzke P, Dahlstrand C, Hoye K. A combined analysis of double-blind trials of the efficacy and tolerability of doxazosin-gastrointestinal therapeutic system, doxazosin standard and placebo in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. BJU Int. 2001;87:192-200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    van Kerrebroeck P, Jardin A, Laval KU, van Cangh P. Efficacy and safety of a new prolonged release formulation of alfuzosin 10 mg once daily versus alfuzosin 2.5 mg thrice daily and placebo in patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. ALFORTI Study Group. Eur Urol. 2000;37:306-313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wilt TJ, Howe RW, Rutks IR, MacDonald R. Terazosin for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. CD003851; 2002Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wilt TJ, MacDonald R, Nelson D. Tamsulosin for treating lower urinary tract symptoms compatible with benign prostatic obstruction: a systematic review of efficacy and adverse effects. J Urol. 2002;167:177-183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Milani S, Djavan B. Lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia: latest update on alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists. BJU Int. 2005;95(suppl 4): 29-36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Djavan B, Marberger M. A meta-analysis on the efficacy and tolerability of alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic obstruction. Eur Urol. 1999;36:1-13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Narayan P, Tunuguntla HS. Long-term efficacy and safety of tamsulosin for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Rev Urol. 2005;7(suppl 4):S42-S48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Na YJ, Guo YL, Gu FL. Clinical comparison of selective and non-selective alpha 1A-adrenoceptor antagonists for bladder outlet obstruction associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia: studies on tamsulosin and terazosin in Chinese patients. The Chinese Tamsulosin Study Group. J Med. 1998;29:289-304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lee E, Lee C. Clinical comparison of selective and non-selective alpha 1A-adrenoreceptor antagonists in benign prostatic hyperplasia: studies on tamsulosin in a fixed dose and terazosin in increasing doses. Br J Urol. 1997;80: 606-611PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Barendrecht MM, Koopmans RP, de la Rosette JJ, Michel MC. Treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia: the cardiovascular system. BJU Int. 2005;95(suppl 4):19-28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wilson JD, Griffin JE, Russell DW. Steroid 5 alpha-reductase 2 deficiency. Endocr Rev. 1993;14:577-593PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Russell DW, Wilson JD. Steroid 5 alpha-reductase: two genes/two enzymes. Annu Rev Biochem. 1994;63:25-61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Randall VA. Role of 5 alpha-reductase in health and disease. Baillières Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1994;8:405-431PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Andersson S, Berman DM, Jenkins EP, Russell DW. Deletion of steroid 5 alpha-reductase 2 gene in male pseudohermaphroditism. Nature. 1991;354:159-161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Gormley GJ, Stoner E, Bruskewitz RC, et al. The effect of finasteride in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia the finasteride study group. N Engl J Med. 992;327:1185-1191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Debruyne FM, Jardin A, Colloi D, et al. Sustained-release alfuzosin, finasteride and the combination of both in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. European ALFIN Study Group. Eur Urol. 1998;34:169-175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lepor H, Williford WO, Barry MJ, et al. The efficacy of terazosin, finasteride, or both in benign prostatic hyperplasia veterans affairs cooperative studies benign prostatic hyperplasia study group. N Engl J Med. 1996;335: 533-539PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kirby RS, Roehrborn C, Boyle P, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of doxazosin and finasteride, alone or in combination, in treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia: The Prospective European Doxazosin and Combination Therapy (PREDICT) trial. Urology. 2003;61:119-126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kaplan SA, McConnell JD, Roehrborn CG, et al. Combination therapy with doxazosin and finasteride for benign prostatic hyperplasia in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms and a baseline total prostate volume of 25 ml or greater. J Urol. 2006;175:217-220; discussion 220-221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Crawford ED, Wilson SS, McConnell JD, et al. Baseline factors as predictors of clinical progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia in men treated with placebo. J Urol. 2006;175:1422-1426; discussion 1426-1427PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gormley GJ, Ng J, Cook T, Stoner E, Guess H, Walsh P. Effect of finasteride on prostate-specific antigen density. Urology. 1994;43:53-58; discussion 58-59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lowe FC, Batista J, Berges R, et al. Risk factors for disease progression in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH): a systematic analysis of expert opinion. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2005;8:206-209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lee JY, Kim HW, Lee SJ, Koh JS, Suh HJ, Chancellor MB. Comparison of doxazosin with or without tolterodine in men with symptomatic bladder outlet obstruction and an overactive bladder. BJU Int. 2004;94:817-820PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Abrams P, Kaplan S, De Koning Gans HJ, Millard R. Safety and tolerability of tolterodine for the treatment of overactive bladder in men with bladder outlet obstruction. J Urol. 2006;175:999-1004; discussion 1004PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kaplan SA, Roehrborn CG, Rovner ES, Carlsson M, Bavendam T, Guan Z. Tolterodine and tamsulosin for treatment of men with lower urinary tract symptoms and overactive bladder: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2006;296:2319-2328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Mebust WK, Holtgrewe HL, Cockett AT, Peters PC. Transurethral prostatectomy: immediate and postoperative complications. A cooperative study of 13 participating institutions evaluating 3,885 patients. J Urol. 1989; 141:243-247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Rassweiler J, Teber D, Kuntz R, Hofmann R. Complications of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) – incidence, management, and prevention. Eur Urol. 2006;50:969-979; discussion 980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hon NH, Brathwaite D, Hussain Z, et al. A prospective, randomized trial comparing conventional transurethral prostate resection with PlasmaKinetic vaporization of the prostate: physiological changes, early complications and long-term followup. J Urol. 2006;176:205-209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Boyle P, Robertson C, Vaughan ED, Fitzpatrick JM. A meta-analysis of trials of transurethral needle ablation for treating symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. BJU Int. 2004;94:83-88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Wagrell L, Schelin S, Nordling J, et al. Three-year follow-up of feedback microwave thermotherapy versus TURP for clinical BPH: a prospective randomized multicenter study. Urology. 2004;64:698-702PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Vesely S, Knutson T, Damber JE, Dicuio M, Dahlstrand C. TURP and low-energy TUMT treatment in men with LUTS suggestive of bladder outlet obstruction selected by means of pressure-flow studies: 8-year follow-up. Neurourol Urodyn. 2006;25:770-775PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hoffman RM, MacDonald R, Monga M, Wilt TJ. Transurethral microwave thermotherapy vs transurethral resection for treating benign prostatic hyperplasia: a systematic review. BJU Int. 2004;94:1031-1036PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Naspro R, Bachmann A, Gilling P, et al. A review of the recent evidence (2006–2008) for 532-nm photoselective laser vaporisation and holmium laser enucleation of the prostate. Eur Urol. 2009;55:1345-1357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Vela-Navarrete R, Gonzalez-Enguita C, Garcia-Cardoso JV, Manzarbeitia F, Sarasa-Corral JL, Granizo JJ. The impact of medical therapy on surgery for benign prostatic hyperplasia: a study comparing changes in a decade (1992–2002). BJU Int. 2005;96:1045-1048PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer London 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrea Tubaro
    • 1
  • Cosimo de Nunzio
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of UrologyLa Sapienza University – Sant’Andrea HospitalRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations