Gross and Laparoscopic Anatomy of the Upper Urinary Tract and Retroperitoneum
The upper urinary tract is contained within the retroperitoneum. The retroperitoneal space is bound by the diaphragm superiorly; posteriorly and laterally by the musculature of the body wall; anteriorly, by the peritoneal envelope; and inferiorly, it is contiguous with the pelvis. The kidneys and ureters lie within the retroperitoneum together with the adrenal glands, as well as significant vascular, lymphatic, and neural structures (see Fig.2.1). The anterior retroperitoneum also contains the duodenum, pancreas, and portions of the ascending and descending colon, all in close proximity to the upper urinary tract.
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