• Robert P. Baughman
  • Elyse E. Lower


Sarcoidosis involves systemic inflammatory disorder with noncaseating granulomatous inflammation in affected organs. It commonly involves the lungs, eyes, skin, joints, lymph nodes, and upper respiratory tract. In the United States, prevalence of sarcoidosis is between 10 and 40 cases/100,000 population. In Sweden, the prevalence is higher, estimated to be between 60 and 80 cases/100,000 population. In the United States, the highest incidence of sarcoido-sis is observed in young African—American women. Löfgren's syndrome, the combination of fever, erythema nodosum, bilateral hilar adenopathy, symmetric polyarthritis, and uveitis, is one mode of acute presentation of sarcoidosis. The Heerfordt syndrome, another acute presentation, consists of fever, granulomatous inflammation of the lacrimal and parotid glands, uveitis, bilateral hilar ade-nopathy, and cranial neuropathies. Ninety percent of patients with sarcoidosis have evidence of pulmonary disease on chest radiography. The most common finding is hilar adenopathy. Ocular involvement is a common complication of sar-coidosis. The usual ocular manifestations are anterior uveitis and pars planitis. However, posterior uveitis and optic neuritis may also occur. Posterior uveitis can remain asymptomatic until it has reached the advanced stages. Thus, screening for oph-thalmologic disease is important for sarcoidosis patients. The diagnosis of sarcoidosis is established by correlation of the clinical presentation, clinical course, histo-pathological findings, and response to therapy. Glucocorticoids remain the cornerstone of therapy for active sarcoidosis.


Interstitial Lung Disease Optic Neuritis Cardiac Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis Patient Pulmonary Sarcoidosis 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert P. Baughman
    • 1
  • Elyse E. Lower
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Cincinnati, Internal Medicine, 1001 HomlesCincinnatiUSA

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