Countermeasures in Integrated Model of I&C Systems and Human Operators

  • Man Cheol Kim
  • Poong Hyun Seong
Part of the Springer Series in Reliability Engineering book series (RELIABILITY)


Reliability and risk issues related to the development of an integrated model of I&C systems and human operators in large-scale systems are discussed in Chapter 10. The development of an integrated model that address these issues is discussed in this chapter. I&C systems and human operators are completely different entities by nature. However, both I&C systems and human operators process information. I&C systems gather information from the plant and processes it to provide automatic control signals to the plant. I&C systems also provide information to human operators in a form that human operators can understand. Human operators receive the information from I&C systems and process it to provide manual control signals for I&C systems. The way information is processed in I&C systems is generally known, while the way information is processed by human operators is not well known. The development of an integrated model of I&C systems and human operators starts from the development of a model for how human operators process incoming information, especially during abnormal or emergency situations.


Failure Probability Human Operator Situation Awareness Situation Model Safety Culture 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    Stanton NA, Chambers PRG, and Piggott J (2001) Situational awareness and safety, Safety Science, vol. 39, pp.189–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Endsley MR (1995) Toward a theory of situation awareness in dynamic systems, Human Factors, vol. 37, pp. 32–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Bendy G and Meister D (1999) Theory of activity and situation awareness, International Journal of Cognitive Ergonomics, vol. 3, pp. 63–72,CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Adams MJ, Tenney YJ, and Pew RW (1995) Situation awareness and the cognitive management of complex systems. Human Factors, vol. 37, pp. 85–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Park JC (2004) Private communicationGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Barriere M., Bley D, Cooper S, Forester J, Kolaczkowski A, Luckas W, Parry G, Ramey-Smith A, Thompson C, Whitehead D, Wreathall J (2000) Technical Basis and Implementation Guideline for A Technique for Human Event Analysis (ATHEANA), NUREG-1624, Rev. 1, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Seridan TB and Ferrel WR (1981) Man-machine systems, MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Kim MC and Seong PH (2002) Reliability Graph with General Gates: An Intuitive and Practical Method for System Reliability Analysis, Reliability Engineering and System Safety, vol. 78, pp. 239–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer London 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Man Cheol Kim
    • 1
  • Poong Hyun Seong
    • 2
  1. 1.Integrated Safety Assessment DivisionKorea Atomic Energy Research InstituteDaejeonKorea, Republic of
  2. 2.Department of Nuclear and Quantum EngineeringKorea Advanced Institute of Science and TechnologyDaejeonKorea, Republic of

Personalised recommendations